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Autor: sudem13 • December 23, 2016 • Research Paper • 1,816 Words (8 Pages) • 62 Views
INCREASING THE WORKING WOMEN IN SOCIETIES
25 April 2016
In the last fifty years, millions of women, who were once dependent on men, have taken control of their economic fate. Even though there is an increased number of working women in society, the amount of working men is much more than working women. Women are not making the top of any profession anywhere in the world. According to a survey which was done in 2014 March, of the 195 independent countries (Department of State) in the world, only twenty-one are led by women (United Nations Women “Facts”). Of all the people in the parliament in the world, 13% are women (Woman in National Parliaments). In Turkey, males’ employment rate is 2.4 times of females (Turkish Statistical Institute). Thus, the world based on the dominance of the men causes to continue the existence of sex discrimination and inequality, which reflects on the economy adversely as well. If activeness of women is not enabled in the economy, economic development cannot be mentioned. Therefore, in order to increase the number of women in the workforce, the following three guidelines should be implemented: mandating that at least 40% of employees in a company are women, supporting mothers and mothers-to-be before and after they give birth, and providing fertile ground for women to make them able to show their entrepreneurial spirits.
One of the solutions can be used in order to solve sex discrimination against women in the workforce is restricting the difference between working women and men. In 2010, women’s labor force participation rates remain below 30% in Western Asia (Hegewisch, William, and Zhang). The gap between participation rates of women and men has narrowed slightly in the last 20 years but remains considerable (Hegewisch, Williams, and Zhang). With the maternity leave right, each woman had a permission of resting at home for sixteen weeks before and after giving birth in Turkey (Gebelikte Rapor ve Izin). Thus, employers started to see women as a powder keg and be perturbed about the working women. Therefore, they started to give primacy to men when they recruit employees. As a result, the difference has risen and now, the rate of the working women in Turkey is less than 28% (Turkish Statistical Institute). According to an interview with the general director of İş Bank in Antalya, after the increasing maternity law, companies started to be hesitant about working women and under the same conditions, the men are one move ahead of women (Fidangül). Another obvious problem that needs to be touched upon is housework and childcare. According to the research, if a woman and a man work full-time and have children, the woman does 40% more childcare and 30% more housework than the man does (Sandberg n.p.). In this situation, naturally men become more successful than women and this causes the number of working women in societies to reduce. Women have to have a determined place in the workforces to solve this problem. Because of these reasons, in order to prevent women from these situations, the government should enact a law which obliges employers that at least 40% of employees in their company are women.
Another way of increasing the number of women in the workforces is supporting mothers and mothers-to-be before and after giving birth. In the last term of pregnancy, women have to cope with stress, anxiety, insomnia, movement problems, headaches and backaches, and physical needs (Common Discomforts). Making them work will exacerbate these problems. Therefore, every working woman must be allowed to go their homes and be paid in the last three months of their pregnancies instead of two months’ allowance without payment (Gebelikte Rapor ve Izin) which is incredibly and horrifically soon. After giving birth, they have to cope with infections, excessive bleeding, hemorrhoids and constipation, and urinary incontinence (Postpartum Problems). While they are in this situation, the system expects them to work. At the same time, babies’ food source is attached to their body, so it increases the consumption of baby food and affects babies’ health negatively. With the combine of postpartum depression and these problems, the second most common type of death in a women’s first year postpartum is suicide (Sandberg). On the other hand, these babies raised in a psychologically and physically unhealthy way will fill the workforce, teach children, and make up the tax base. Therefore, it will affect the next generation, too. Furthermore, it is an economic problem. According to the results of NKA, while 35.6 percent of working women have more than three children, 52.8 percent of unemployed women have more than three children (Turkish Statistical Institute). Working women do not want to have babies because of these results, but it is a necessity that women should work and have babies at the same time. Thus, after a birth, at least three months leave permission with salary should be given to the women. Moreover, a myriad of daycare centers should be established all around the workforces with less money to make feeding and leaving babies in a safe place easier. On the other hand, women feel scared, since they don`t know how they will handle work and baby at the same time, so they are getting back very earlier before their birth. Briefly, these rights will enable women to participate in the workforce with confidence and comfort.
Providing fertile ground for women to make them able to show their entrepreneurial spirits is an effective way of increasing working women. Firstly, lots of women do not want to work because of the increasing violence to women. According to the official data, one in three women worldwide has experienced physical or sexual violence (United Nations, “Prevent Violence”) and 66,000 women and girls are violently killed every year (Small Arms Survey). In this situation, if the night shift and late working hours are considered, women are scared and do not want to work. Furthermore, the punishments which are given to guilty people are not disincentive. The murderer’s punishment is reducing because of many ridiculous matters in mitigation like waiting the judgement respectfully, enviousness which is shown in unjust provocation, or believing him to not do it again (Bozarslan). In order to solve this problem, the punishments given to harassers and murderers should be increased due to its feasible benefits for today’s women with the fear spread by severe punishments. Another negative effect of the environment on women is raising them from the moment they are born with gender discrimination. Stereotyped judgements towards genders such as “Pretty like Mummy” for “sweat” girls and “Clever like Daddy” for “bossy” boys (Gray) and even the slogan of t-shirts like “I am too pretty to do homework so my brother has to do it for me,” (Sausers) imprinted people’s brains day by day. These concepts destroy the confidence and leadership of the women. In experiment done in New York and Colombia Universities, both of the schools’ business teachers gave students a character. They were all outgoing, successful leaders. They made exactly one change, the character’s name: Heidi to Howard. The students gave the same results, but everybody preferred Howard (Hanson). Even though it looks like impossible when the minister of labor in Turkey could say “Unemployment is high because women are looking for a job.” (Lauer), with an extensive education to primarily parents and all community by experts, this dangerous and conventional fallacy can be surmounted. If these solutions are followed, girls will be able to grow up and work in an equal and safe world.