OtherPapers.com - Other Term Papers and Free Essays

500 Enlish Sentences

Essay by   •  July 29, 2011  •  Essay  •  3,787 Words (16 Pages)  •  2,000 Views

Essay Preview: 500 Enlish Sentences

Report this essay
Page 1 of 16


Economic globalization is rampant in the business world between all continents. Fueled by transnational circulation of ideologies, languages and the use of bi-lateral ties to improve the economies of less developed countries to the extent of embracing enhanced forms of barter system such as to use the population of a lesser developed country to manufacture products for a 1st world country. Jobs are created for the needy; products are manufactured for the other.

Student exchange is a form of a globalization effort where students are exposed to an alternative lifestyle. Candidates who take part in such programs, such as the one run by

The Council of Local Authorities for International Relations or CLAIR together with several Japanese Ministries, brings in to Japan, participants from over 36 countries with a total of *4,334 participants to date in a globalized effort to promote grass roots internationalization at the local level by inviting these participants to assist in international exchange and foreign language education in their local governments, boards of education and schools through out in Japan. The Japanese seeks to foster ties between the Japanese citizens and the participants through a project known as JET or The Japan Exchange and Teaching Program.

Challenges are plenty, but can be resolved. Let's take a look at a situation that had taken place a couple of years back regarding a student and her superior during her stay in Japan.

* Source of information via http://www.jetprogramme.org/

Summary of Case Study

We are going to look into the factors that had contributed to the escalation of a simple sick leave request to a generally unhappy outcome.

Kelly, a young and enthusiastic student from Canada embarked on the JET program, to live and work in a foreign country, Japan. Being young and pretty wet behind the ears, embarked on a mission with a pretty sound idea of enriching her academic life by signing up for the JETs program. However, even before getting the feel of the brevity of what is involved, she already had plans to have fun while engaging in her life-changing experience. She did not know or know enough on the cultural differences between the western and eastern world.

Though the incident involving Mr. Higashi (her superior) and herself appears unfair, Kelly failed to understand that, when in Rome, do as the Romans do.

She brought along the western expectations to a foreign land and expected compliance with her mindset. Unfortunately, Japan is a country where male supremacy reigns, and discipline is expected. The Japanese believes in loyalty to the corporation through an almost self-sacrificial position by their staff. Workers are expected to show loyalty by means of sacrificing whatever is beneficial for themselves for the company. That includes, taking paid leave instead of sick leave.

Kelly had a good leverage in the company she worked in because of her ability to converse in Japanese. Instead of using that leverage, she chose to go head on with her superiors, who are Alpha males in the organization. Such behaviors are not tolerated by the Japanese as predominantly, subordinates are to obey and not be heard, let alone women who are often seen as a weaker gender other than looking after babies and keeping the household clean and are expected to show due respect to their superiors especially when they are male.

The different frames of Kelly

We will look into the frames, negotiation strategy and tactics used by Kelly and Mr. Higashi during the conflict.

Sanda Kaufman, Michael Elliott and Deborah Shmueli (2003) stated that the use of frames is to help us to understand why conflict arises, what actions are important to the conflict, why the parties act as they do and how we should act in response. [1]Many factors influence frames and their formation.

There are two main frames that Kelly uses- substantive (relating to legal principles not procedures) and loss-gain frame.

Both, Mr. Higashi and Kelly know basically what the conflict is about. I think that the frame is broad as the broader the substantive frame, the more the study will eventually be able to report and more significant will be the study.

For Kelly, it is substantive because, she had the evidence of the JET contract. The contract states that if the JET participant were to take three or more consecutive days of sick leave, he/she must submit a doctor's certificate but Kelly was on leave for only two days and Mr. Higashi demanded a doctor's certificate from her.

Based on our research at :


We learn that the concept of gain and loss framing was first examined in the context of prospect theory [2]. According to prospect theory, when the prospect of gains is emphasized, individuals reject risky behaviors, called risk averse. When the attempt to curb losses is highlighted, individuals tend to prefer risky behaviors, called risk seeking.

Kelly's type of frame is loss-gain because she had two options to choose from- one, is to walked away without negotiating with Mr. Higashi or to continue negotiate till Mr. Higashi accept her MCs as sick leave. If Kelly chose the first option, her relationship with Mr. Higashi would not be strained and the matter will rest. If Kelly chose the second option-the risky, uncertain alternative-the likelihood Kelly would be fired or blacklisted by Mr. Higashi and this will affect the rest of the stay in the program.

Also, Kelly had lost two days of paid leave instead of sick leave which means that her salary will be deducted and this is unfair to her.

Therefore, Kelly uses loss-gain frame as only one side will win in this situation.


[1] Sandra Kaufman, Michael Elliot, Deborah Shmuell, 2003, "Frames, Framing and Reframing" Beyond Intractability. Ed. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess. 2003. Conflict Research Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.


[2] Kahneman & Tverski, 1979, op cit.; Tversky, A. and D. Kahneman, 1981. "The Framing of



Download as:   txt (23.5 Kb)   pdf (240.5 Kb)   docx (19.6 Kb)  
Continue for 15 more pages »
Only available on OtherPapers.com
Citation Generator

(2011, 07). 500 Enlish Sentences. OtherPapers.com. Retrieved 07, 2011, from https://www.otherpapers.com/essay/500-Enlish-Sentences/7918.html

"500 Enlish Sentences" OtherPapers.com. 07 2011. 2011. 07 2011 <https://www.otherpapers.com/essay/500-Enlish-Sentences/7918.html>.

"500 Enlish Sentences." OtherPapers.com. OtherPapers.com, 07 2011. Web. 07 2011. <https://www.otherpapers.com/essay/500-Enlish-Sentences/7918.html>.

"500 Enlish Sentences." OtherPapers.com. 07, 2011. Accessed 07, 2011. https://www.otherpapers.com/essay/500-Enlish-Sentences/7918.html.