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1. Arteriosclerosis means thickening and hardening of the arteries, this sometimes happens when people grow older. If plaque partly or entirely blocks the flow through the artery two things can happen; there may be a hemorrhage (bleeding) into the plaque or a thrombus (blood clot) can form in the surface of the plaque. In either instance, if the entire artery is blocked, it can result in a stroke or heart attack.

2. Capillaries, veins and arteries are forms of blood vessels. They each have different roles in the body and are different shapes. Blood vessels transfer oxygen and other important components through the body, it also removes waste. Arteries carry blood away from the heart, veins carry blood to the heart, and capillaries receive blood from the arteries.

3. The advantages of the closed system is one, it functions with a higher blood pressure. It also uses less blood, as a result distribution is at a higher, and faster level. Organisms with a closed system can metabolize faster since the oxygenated blood can reach the extremities faster, this allows them to move, digest and get rid of waste quicker. Immune responses are stronger due to the efficient distribution of antibodies which help the body to fight infection with more force.

4. The lymphatic system is closely connected with the blood and circulatory system. It is a broad drainage system that takes water and proteins from different tissues and puts them back into the bloodstream. It consists of an arrangement of ducts that are called lymph vessels or lymphatics. Lymphatics carry a clear watery fluid (lymph) that is similar to the plasma of blood. Lymph comes from the blood and returns to the blood, its vessels are comparable to the veins and capillaries of the blood system. Where ever there are blood vessels in the body, there are lymph vessels and they work together.

5. Lymphedema- The lymphatic system is a circulatory system that includes an extensive network of lymph vessels and lymph nodes. The lymphatic system helps coordinate the immune system's function to protect the body from foreign substances. Lymphedema is an unusual build-up of fluid which causes inflammation, mostly in the arms or legs. It occurs when lymph vessels or lymph nodes are absent, weakened, damaged, or removed. The absence of certain lymph vessels at birth causes lymphedema, it can also be caused by abnormalities in the lymphatic vessels.


American Heart Association (2011) www.heart.org

Higgins, Justin (2011) the difference Between a Closed & Open Circulatory System

McGuigan, Brendan (2011) The Difference Between Arteries, Veins, Blood Vessels and Capillaries

WebMD (2009) Types of Vascular Disease www.webmd.com



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