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Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Essay by   •  March 29, 2012  •  Research Paper  •  2,455 Words (10 Pages)  •  2,030 Views

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Outline

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

1. Introduction

a. ADHD Example

2. What is ADHD?

b. Among most common disorders of childhood

3. What causes ADHD?

c. Heredity

d. Brain Structure

e. Chemicals in the Brain

f. Function of areas of the Brain

g. Toxins

4. Characteristics:

1. The diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria serves as a standardized framework for the diagnosis of ADHD

2. Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with development level

h. Predominantly Inattentive type

i. Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type

j. Combined type

5. Who has ADHD?

k. Both adults and children

l. Boys and girls

6. How is ADHD diagnosed?

m. Adult Observations

n. Teachers

o. Medical Examination

9. How is ADHD treated?

p. Medication

q. All kids should have the option of being treated because it can significantly help their ability to focus/concentrate and reach their full potential

r. Types of Medication

1. Stimulants

2. Behavioral Therapy

10. How does ADHD affect us all?

s. Common Myth

t. As students

u. As parents

v. As teachers

11. How children can get the benefits of special education?

w. IDEA

x. ADHD falls into other health impairments

12. Conclusion Paragraph

y. What is the most effective strategy

z. Prevention

We all heard about a child who doesn't know how to stay in their seat in class; instead the child would climb on the chairs and make noise during class lessons. The child might run out of the classroom and down the hall screaming. We all probably have witnessed a child who looks out the window daydreaming instead of paying attention. Of course on occasion we all might have problems with sitting still, paying attention, or even controlling our behavior. Every person has experienced some of these symptoms once in their life. Just not everyday all day like a person with ADHD. ADHD is disorder that generates a lot of discussion and research.

ADHD is the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, and the number of children it is estimated to affect is between three to five percent. The main symptoms of ADHD are extreme inappropriate levels of attention, concentration, activity, distractibility, and impulsivity. Children with ADHD seem to usually have performing impairments across multiple settings in the home, school, and in social relationships. ADHD research has shown to have long-term adverse effects on academic performance, career choices, and emotional development (Diagnosis and Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, at http://consensus.nih.gov/cons).

ADHD is psychiatric condition that mainly is associated with a pattern of extreme inactivity in the frontal lobes area of the brain. (Monastra 29). This basically means the part of person's body that controls what is in charge of their thinking, planning, and concentrating, is not on target in order for a person to be able to succeed at any task.

To date there is still no specific clinical cause for ADHD but we all know exist. Unfortunately, if you are a parent of a child with ADHD it can be hard to accept and probably still blame yourself at times, but scientists now believe that there is a genetic and neurobiological explanation for the disorder (Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, at http://mayoclinic.com). The messages from the brain aren't being sent correctly. Children are born with ADHD and it is a medical condition known primarily being caused by an under developed areas of the brain that control mood, behavior, and help one pay attention. (Monastra 35)

ADHD was originally thought to be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain because children that are diagnosed with ADHD appeared to have low levels of dopamine. Dopamine is a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain involved in attention, movement and motivation. Today, doctors might suggest a brain scan for children with ADHD. The brain scan can show changes in the neural pathways that carry these messages (Monastra 33). After many studies, researchers now believe that there is a possibility that the dysfunction of these pathways could be interfering with communication between the parts of the brain that regulate attention, planning, impulsive behavior and motor control, which are all areas of difficulty for people with ADHD.

The most popular cause of ADHD is based on genetics. Studies have been done on families, adoption, twins, and genetic research. Research shows that one in four children with ADHD have at least one relative with the disorder, and when a twin has ADHD, the other twin can have has it as well (Causes of ADHD, at http://myadhd.com/causesofadhd.html).

There have been studies done that show evidence that preschool children have been exposed to lead have an increased risk of developmental and behavioral problems. Children whose mother smoked, took drugs, or had exposure to environmental toxins during pregnancy may also show signs of developmental and behavioral, however, it is unlikely that such exposure accounts for differences in brain development in the vast majority of children and adolescents with ADHD. Injuries to the brain can also cause ADHD but are unlikely (Causes

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