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Cystic Fibrosis

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Cohen, R. A. (1969). Conceptual styles, culture conflict, and nonverbal tests of intelligence. American Anthropologist vol. 71 no. (5) pp. 828-856

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents

Anti-inflammatory therapies are used as a mechanism of the therapeutic scheduling of CF. the lung injuries are reported due to the inflated and constant seditious reaction in CF airways. Therefore, a careful balance should be maintained between damage reduction and the chronic inflammatory response, in order to minimize the adverse impacts related with anti-inflammatory agents.

Currents medications as anti-inflammatory for people suffering from CF include phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors like sildenafil, methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, inhaled glutathione, pioglitazone, acetylcysteine HE-3286, docosahexaenoic acid and a1-antitrypsin. Medication of leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist rejected because it leads to amplification in exacerbation rates in working groups.


Dornase alfa (recombinant human DNase) is an effective medication used to break good amount of DNA in CF sputum to reduce its thickness and stickiness. Sputum contains a substantial amount of neutrophils in along with bacteria and is very thick and sticky.

Dornase alfa (recombinant human DNase) helps in reducing substantial exacerbations however, therapeutic trial should be conducted before assessment as individual response id highly varies (Abraham. 2004). Acetylcysteine has also been considered as a medication as it could influence the rheological possessions of sputum, but no positive response are indicated as such.

Improving Airway Hydration

In Cystic Fibrosis, the ASL decreased due to disparity in chloride discharge and augmentation in sodium absorption. Ion channels or osmotic agent's drugs can help to organize the replacement of the ASL.

Osmotic Agents

A research evaluation is under process for dry-powder inhalation of mannitol (Bronchitol) which is essential for medication of CF lung infections. In an experiment in 39 patients suffering with normal or above normal CF lung syndrome, breathed in medication of mannitol 420 mg twice daily, which confirmed the improvement in lung function with a mean FEV1 raise of 7% above baseline. Beside this, in a study of 38 children with CF, 9 (24%) had a decrease in FEV1 of ‡15% during a bronchial provocation challenge to mannitol.

Ion Channel Modulating Agents

At present, no agents have been derived, but Denufosol is being under exploratory stage II. An agent that helps in transports of defective chloride channels



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