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U.S. History Final Exam Study Guide

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*The U.S. History final exam consists of 100 questions and covers units 1-6. The test will be on Tuesday June 16, 2015.

*To assist you in preparation for the exam you are being given this study guide.

*I would like you to make a commitment to study for 20 minutes every day up to test day. Consider this study guide a contract and Return this page with signatures for (25points) extra credit.

*It has been my pleasure to be your history teacher this year. I hope you have a wonderful summer!

Good Luck on all of your finals – Mrs. Festa

Parent signature__________________________________

Student signature_________________________________

U.S. History Final Exam Study Guide

Growth of Cities 1870-1920:

*U.S. citizens and immigrants move to cities for Jobs, transportation and innovation encourage people to move to cities.

*Skyscrapers are invented so cities can grow vertically. Parks are created for recreation.

*Urban planners promoted the orderly growth of cities; Louis Sullivan, Daniel Burnham, Frederick Law Olmstead.

*Urban stratification (social position) emerges in cities based on ethnicity, race and class.

Population growth leads to Political machines:

*Political machines develop to “help citizens”, they accept bribes and give jobs and business to their friends.

*Tammany Hall is a political machine in New York City.

*Jane Adams establishes settlement houses to help the poor.

Populist Party 1891-1896:

*The Party failed to address the problems of the new industrial economy.

Progressive Movement 1890-1920, (political reform &  social movement:

*Examples of reforms; direct election of U.S. senators, procedures for recall elections, hiring of city managers, promoting conservation.

*Muckrakers (investigative journalists) uncover corruption in business and government.

Theodore Roosevelt 26th President (Republican & Progressive):

*New Nationalism agenda: collect income tax, creative national parks, conserve resources, workers compensation laws, building the Panama Canal.

Woodrow Wilson 28th President (Democrat & Progressive):

*New Freedom agenda, wanted to graduate the income tax, eliminate monopolies.

*Believed women should have the right vote, approved the 19th Amendment.

Women’s Suffrage (right to vote):

*Leaders; Elizabeth Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Julia Ward Howe, Carrie Chapman Catt fight for the right to vote, (goal to gain immediate women’s suffrage  Picket the white house, were arrested, jailed and went on hunger strikes. 1920 the 19th amendment is ratified (signed/approved) giving women suffrage.


*Sharecropping (land owners allowed farmers to use their land in exchange for a share of the crops) traps southern blacks in a cycle of poverty. Crop liens were credit system that gave farmers credit in exchange for their crops.

*1896 Plessy V. Ferguson Supreme Court approves segregation separate but equal facilities for blacks.

Spanish American War:

*Explosion of the Maine, Yellow journalism, and desire to protect US investments = US going to war with Spain in 1898.

*At the end of the Spanish American war – The Philippines became a US territory.


*U.S. claims Neutrality/ Isolationism- not supporting either side stay out of WWI

*Unrestricted Submarine attacks cause US to enterWWI

*Espionage and Sedition Acts passed to provide national security.

*All had to work (Women took place of men in factories)

*Wilson Proposes League of Nations to assure lasting world peace.

*“Big Four” create Treaty of Versailles (to end disagreements over treatment of Germany). Not ratified by congress because congress  feared the League of Nations would supersede US authority.

The 1920’s:

*The Roaring 20’s – age of prosperity

*Harlem Renaissance- 1920s African American cultural movement that included:  literature, drama, music, art, and dance.

*18th Amendment- Prohibition of the sale of alcohol, brought bootleggers , increase in organized crime.

*Nativists and the Ku Klux Klan object to immigration.

*Scopes trial - brought the conflict between the teaching of evolution and religious fundamentalism to a head.

The Great Depression:

*Causes – Stock Market crash 1929: Wild stock speculation, economic disparity, bank crisis, Investors buying on credit.

*Effects – Soup kitchens and bank closures, drop in marriage and birth rate.

Dust Bowl:

*Causes – native grasses were removed to increase production.

*Farmers left their farms for California

Herbert Hoover U.S. President (R)  1929-1933

*Hoover philosophy of government deepened the depression, because nothing was done to stop it.

Franklin D. Roosevelt President (D) 1933-1945

*The New Deal = program to solve the depression. First 100 days record # of bills passed to provide immediate relief.

*FDR communicated to the American people through “fireside chats”. Raised confidence that things would improve.

*New Deal: Objective – Relief, Recovery and Reform to people and the economy.

*Social Security Act – help for retirees, disabled, mothers and children.

*Civilian Conservation Corps – government help for needy families.

*TVA & FDIC still exist

*Some people thought the New Deal went too far and others though it had not gone far enough.

*Historians agree, the New Deal did not end the depression.


*Dictators – In the 1930’s Fascist dictators assumed power by promising prosperity and order.

*Neutrality laws – passed by congress to return U.S. to isolationism.

*FDR provides assistance to the allies by leasing bases and lending supplies.

*FDR prepared for war through Selective service act.



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