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Happy Worker - Job Satisfaction and Motivation

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worker thesis came to be considered as fact by many" (Wright et al., 2002). But before discussing this matter deeply, it is necessary to know what is meant by productivity and job satisfaction. Productivity is a performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency and job satisfaction is a general attitude (not a behavior) toward one's job; a positive feeling of one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics. (Robbins et al., 2007)

The purpose of this article is to prove the relationship between employee's happiness and productivity and check whether happy workers are more productive or not. This article will start with job satisfaction and motivation and what leads to them followed by a detailed discussion about the relationship between job satisfaction and productivity.

Job Satisfaction and Motivation

Job satisfaction is highly related with happiness and even they can be looked as different names for the same thing. People have many expectations from their works which has to be fulfilled in order to be satisfied with their work which will make them happy such as getting paid, self esteem, satisfaction and social contact. Competitive salaries and benefits, flexibility in working hours as well as recognition programs can play a very useful role in helping employee to find job satisfaction that they are seeking for in their work. From an employee's point of view a good job is the one that pays a lot, provides the opportunity for growth, to use skills and knowledge that they have and provides a socialized environment for them. Moreover, in some cases, the key value that makes employees feel happy, secure and productive in the workplace is the respect that they get from their colleagues and supervisors. " Studies also find that employee satisfaction is increased when the immediate supervisor is understanding and friendly, offers praise for good performance, listens to employee's opinions, and shows a personal interest in them. "(Robbins et al., 2007) Furthermore, job satisfaction is usually influenced by age, education level of the employee himself and the social environment surrounding them. "Research on happiness shows that social relationships with friends and others are probably the most important cause of joy and happiness" (Griffin, 1986).

In Maslow's hierarchy of needs, he separated the basic and advanced needs of employees which both result in motivating the employees. He stated that the lower-end needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Moreover, Higher-Order Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. (Robbins et al., 2007)

McClelland's in his Theory of Needs stated that there are three basic needs that must be fulfilled in order to motivate employees. "Need for achievement: the drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for affiliation: the desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power: the need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise." (Robbins et al., 2007)

There are three main features which affects performance and those are ability, opportunity and motivation. But mostly is motivation which has great effect on performance. There are different aspects of job satisfaction which are positive and negative aspects as Herzberg defined them and it is very important to distinguish between them. "Positive satisfaction is due to good experiences, and that these are due to motivators (achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility and advancement) and dissatisfaction is due to bad experiences caused by hygiene factors (supervisors, fellow workers, company policy, working conditions and personal life" (Herzberg et al., 1959) He also stated that not meeting the hygiene factors will lead to dissatisfaction, but meeting the motivators will result in satisfaction. Not only that, the work design itself can have great influence on employee's satisfaction and happiness. If the work design give the opportunity for the employee to develop and grow and also provides flexibility in work, then that will make the employee satisfied with his work thus happy and motivated. On the other hand, there are many causes which lead to unhappiness such as boredom, repetition and isolation as well as work pressure caused by high workload or high work pace.

Finally, it is clear that there is a very strong relationship between job satisfaction and motivation. So if an employee is satisfied with his job, then he or she is happy and motivated.

The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Productivity

Does job satisfaction have effect on employee productivity and performance? Well, there are different opinions about that. Some claims that happiness and satisfaction will produce involvement and increase productivity. On the other hand, others expect that when an employee is happy and satisfied then he or she is dull and passive thus motivation will be reduced as well as productivity.

Happiness and satisfaction affects productivity

"Happier workers are more productive workers, according to a new study that shows that offering comprehensive depression treatment may help employers improve their bottom line." (Rost, 2004) If a company can make its employees give the best they can and put all their efforts, energy and talent on work so that will be a competitive advantage for the firm. Furthermore, it is agreed in business field that delighted customers won't be found without committed and happy employees. "The Human Relations movement, of Elton Mayo and others, believed that job satisfaction had beneficial effects, including increased work performance and productivity" (Argyle, 1988). For example, if an employee in an organization has been given all the reasons that will make him happy and satisfied, that will give him the reason to work better and put all of his efforts in performing his tasks because he doesn't have any tension or stress. "For productivity, Bateman and Organ used a cross-lagged design, with a time-interval of 6 weeks and they found that satisfaction predicted performance +.43" (Bateman et al., 1983) and Robbins stated that "Satisfied workers are more productive and worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers." (Robbins et al., 2007)

Providing a good job for employee that satisfies them is very important because satisfaction results in motivation which



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