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 Microchimerism, is the presence of a small number of cells that originate from another individual and are therefore genetically distinct from the cells of the host individual (www.microchimerism.com).  Microchimerism is most commonly connected with pregnancy, which is known as fetomaternal microchimerism in humans. In this case, cells from a fetus pass through the placenta and establish cell lineages within the mother, (www.scientificamerican.com/article/fetal-cells-microchimerisim). Microchimerism cells escape the immune system because they can disrupt and manipulate the checkpoint pathways within the immune system. When the checkpoint in the immune system is manipulated and disrupted, the active T-cells that usually attack the microchimerism are then shut off. Once they are shut off there is not anything that can block the cells, which then allows the microchimerism cells to bypass the immune system (http://www.reproduction-online.org/).

An autoimmune disease occurs when the body attacks itself.  There are a few cells that play a key role in autoimmune disease.  In particular, T cells do not do their job of keeping the immune system in line and heathy, which results in the damage depending on the type of autoimmune disease that is discovered (www. http://www.fortressbiotech.com/research). Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that is linked to microchimerism. When a child has type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot make insulin. Which results in the immune system attacking itself and destroying the cells that produce insulin (www.diabetes.org). Physicians should recommend pregnancy to cure the autoimmune disease Hashimoto. They should not because Hashimoto affects the thyroid and so does pregnancy (www.womenshealth.gov).



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