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Physiology Lecture Notes - Nervous System Recap

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Lecture 4 -Autonomic Nervous System

Nervous system recap

  • Central
  • Peripheral
  • Somatic
  • Has one neuron
  • Autonomic
  • Has two neurons
  • Sympathetic – fight or flight, for survival
  • Neurotransmitter released at ganglion
  • Acetyl choline released pre and post ganglionic neuron
  • norepinepherine
  • Parasympathetic – active when calm, preserves energy
  • Neurotransmitter
  • Acetyl choline released pre and post ganglionic neuron
  • Acetyle choline also released…
  • Receptors
  • Ionotropic- coupled to ion channel
  • Example is acetyl choline acting on nicotinic receptors on post ganglionic neurons
  • Metabotropic- coupled to g proteins, change in cellular function of protein
  • Neurotransmitter within ganglia
  • Neuron to effector transmission
  • Muscarinic receptors
  • Differences between sympathetic and para
  • Sympathetic pre ganglionic is long, other is shorter
  • Parasympathetic nerves originate from spinal cord
  • Both opposites

Terminology

  • Ganglion
  • Synapse
  • Neurotransmitter
  • Afferent and efferent nerves
  • Afferent towards CNS
  • Efferent away from CNS

Adrenal Gland

  • There is only one neuron innovating adrenal gland
  • Pre ganglionic innovates adrenal gland located top of kidneys
  • When activated
  • Adrenal Medulla releases hormones into blood stream
  • [pic 1]
  • Inner most part of adrenal gland, composoed of chromaffin cells- secrete adrenaline and epinephrine and also non adrenaline and non epinephrine
  • [pic 2]
  • In the adrenal meduall there is no post ganglionic neuron instead hormones
  • Once released adrenaline acts on alpha and beta receptors
  • Effects of adrenaline on heart
  • On beta
  • Increases blood flow to heart musle
  • Heart has electrical system which is coupled to contraction so once u increased rate it increases cardio contractility
  • This needs more blood supply
  • Cellular level
  • Increases contraction in  heart decreases in coronary artery
  • Adrenaline acting on beta 1 and 2
  • Indudces calcium release from cytoplasmic reticulum
  • Blood vessel
  • Adrenaline acting on beta 2 receptors thru cyclic

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