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Separation by Extraction

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Chemistry 232     Fall 2017, Spring and Summer 2018

Separation by Extraction

Name:                                                          Date: Oct. 1st, 2017

Abstract

The objectives of this lab were to extract crude phenanthrene, benzoic acid and p-chloroaniline from two stock solutions by using liquid-liquid extraction, and to recrystallize the phenanthrene. Then, the purity of these compounds was evaluated by the melting point range, the solubility and the thin layer chromatography (tlc) test.

Equation of Extraction and Regeneration of Components

Procedure Reference

Refer to Peter, M. Chemistry Laboratory Manual 232, pp21-27 (University of Victoria: Victoria, BC) Fall 2017.

Liquid-liquid Extraction

Reagents for Extraction--indicate which stock solution was extracted!

Compound(Reagents)

MW(g/mol)

Used

Mole

Physical and Safety Data

p-chloroaniline (1.00g/100mL) and phenanthrene (2.00g/mL) (Solution A)

ClC6H4NH2

127.57

100mL

0.00784

Bp: 232°C,mp:67-70°C,Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation) ,Health Hazard,Hazardous to the aquatic environment

Benzoic acid(1.00g/100mL) and phenanthrene (2.00g/mL)  (Solution B)

C6H5COOH

122.12

100mL

0.00819

Bp: 249°C,mp:121-123°C,corrosion,Health Hazard

Phenanthrene

C14H10

178.23

1.006g

0.00561

Bp: 232°C,mp:67-70°C,Colorless monoclinic crystals with a faint aromatic odor, solution exhibit a blue fluorescene. Harmful if swallowed, very toxic to aquatic

Dichloromethane

CH2Cl2

84.93

0.5mL

Solvent

Mp: 91, bp:340, density: 1.325g/ml, toxic, irritant, carcinogen

Hydrochloric acid

HCl

36.46

3*30mL

37% by weight in water, d 1.20/ml, concentration is 12M. highly toxic, corrosive. This is also true of the 6M and 3M solutions used. Dispose as acidic aqueous waste.

Sodium hydroxide

NaOH

40.00

3*30mL

d 2.13g/ml. corrosive, toxic. This is true of the aqueous solutions used. Dispose in “basic aqueous waste” container

Water

H2O

18.02

Solvent

Mp 0°C, bp 100°C, d 1.00g/ml.

Ethanol

C2H5OH

46.07

Solvent

Bp 78°C, d 0.790g/ml. flammable liquid, irritant. Excess consumption on may lead to social consequences. Dispose as non-halogenated wasted

Sodium sulfate

NaSO4

142.04

3.750g

Solvent

        

D 1.84g/ml, Highly toxic, corrosive oxidizer. This is true for aqueous solutions. Dispose by neutralizing, and flushing down the sink with running water.

Hexane

  • CH3(CH2)4CH3

86.18

Solvent

D 0.659g/mL, bp 69°C, mp -95°C. flammable liquid, irritant. Dispose as non-halogenated waste.

Toluene

C6H5OH

92.12

Solvent

D 0.865g/mL, bp 110-111°C, mp -93°C. flammable liquid, toxic

Cyclohexane

C6H12

84.16

Solvent

D 0.779g/mL, bp 80.7°C, mp 4-7°C. flammable liquid. Dispose as non-halogenated waste.

Ethyl acetate

88.11

Solvent

D 0.902g/mL, bp 77.1°C, mp -83.6°C. flammable liquid. Dispose as non-halogenated waste.

p-anisaldehyde

CH306H4CHO

136.15

stain

D 1.119g/mL at 25°C (lit.), bp 248°C, mp -1°C. Hazardous in case of ingestion, skin contact and eye irritant

Bromocresol green

C21H14Br4O5S

698.01

stain

Mp 225°C. irritant to eye and skin

Recrystallization of Phenanthrene

Compound

MW (g/mol)

Used

moles

Physical and Safety Data

Recrystallized Phenanthrene

178.23

1.006g

0.00561

Bp: 232°C,mp:67-70°C,Colorless monoclinic crystals with a faint aromatic odor, solution exhibit a blue fluorescene. Harmful if swallowed, very toxic to aquatic

Benzoic acid

122.12

Bp: 249°C,mp:121-123°C,corrosion,Health Hazard

p-chloroaniline

127.57

Bp: 232°C,mp:67-70°C,Acute toxicity (oral, dermal, inhalation) ,Health Hazard,Hazardous to the aquatic environment

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