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Urbanization and Sustainable Development

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Urbanization is the movement of people from rural to urban areas, and the result is the growth of cities. It is also a process by which rural areas are transformed into urban areas. Urbanization is a process that has occurred, or is occurring, in nearly every part of the world that humans have inhabited. People move into cities to seek economic opportunities and better facilities. Most developing countries experience the process of urbanization, especially once they start becoming industrialized (O'Donnel, 2018). For example, Nepal.

The causes of urban problems are as follows:

1). Sub-urbanization: Sub-urbanization is the shift of population from central urban to sub-urban. For example, migrating to Balkot, Bhaktapur from Kalanki, Kathmandu. In the United States, suburbanization began to occur in mass amounts after World War II, when soldiers returned home from war and wanted to live in houses outside of the city. Throughout the years, the desire to separate work life and home life has increased, causing an increase in suburban populations. Suburbs in the United States have also developed by increases in technology, which allows residents to work from home without traveling. Central urban is over-populated and polluted because of extreme development in industries and factories. Because on increment in population and pollution in central urban individuals prefer to live in peace in sub-urban city.

2). Dis-investment and De-industrialization: De-investment is opposite to investment. It is the process of withdrawing investment from an organization or it is process of not investing or we can say it is the process of selling assets of an organization in order to invest in another organization. De-industrialization is the process of reduction or removal of industries in a particular area, region or country. As cost of production or cost of industrialization in central city is high businessman are de-industrializing or migrating to sub-urban area as cost of production is cheap. Similarly investment in sub-urban is cheaper than central urban so people are investing in sub-urban rather than central urban.

The solutions to solve these problems are as follows:

1). Urban renewal: Urban renewal is a program of land redevelopment in urban city. It will help to combat these problems. It is process of rebuilding or decorating, utilizing unused land to make city more beautiful or attractive. Urban renewal is important to the success of local communities and the long-term prosperity of citizens living in urban areas. Establishing stadiums, apartments, parks in slum area, widening of road, doing social welfare, planting trees, garbage removal are some of activities done by government in the process of urban renewal. Doing these activities might encourage existing citizens to live in urban area.

2). Enterprise zone: Creating enterprise zone will also play effective role to solve above problems as it will reduce pollution drastically which was being produced by industries. Enterprise zone is an area created or separated by government where citizens or businessman can start or establish industries. This area will be covered by industries as its name suggests. Creating enterprise zone in not enough, in order to attract industrialist government need to provide services or facilities like electricity, water, garbage dumping site, etc. If government do these activities than for sure industrialist will be attracted. Creating enterprise zone will reduce different types of pollution in urban area.



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