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Analysis of Hydrocarbon

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Determination of Hydrocarbon was done using 3 different reactions or method, NITRATION TEST, BROMINE TEST, and BASIC OXIDATION, on the unknowns given to each student. Through the Nitration Test, the unknown determined whether it is an Aromatic or Aliphatic Hydrocarbon. Adding Bromine Reagent to the Aliphatic unknown determined whether it is Saturated or Unsaturated Aliphatic Hdrocarbon. While adding KMnO4 and 10% NaOH to the Aromatic unknown determined whether it is a Substituted or Unsubstituted Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The experiment done determined three (3) Unsubstituted Aliphatic Hydrocarbons and two (2) Substitued Aromatic Hydrocarbons.


Hydrocarbons in organic chemistry are compounds made up or consisted of exclusively of hydrogen and carbon. Majority of hydrocarbons are found to be naturally occurring in crude oil, where decomposed organic matter provides an abundance of carbon and hydrogen which, when bonded, can catenate to form seemingly limitless chains. Hydrocarbons from which one hydrogen atom has been removed are functional groups, called hydrocarbyls. Aromatic hydrocarbons, alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and alkyne-based compounds are different types of hydrocarbons.

There are four (4) classifications of hydrocarbons that were defined by IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry, namely, Saturated Hydrocarbons, Unsaturated Hydrocarbons, Cycloalkanes and Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

Saturated Hydrocarbons are compounds where each carbon is bonded to four other atoms through single covalent bonds. Hydrogen atoms usually occupy all available bonding positions after the carbons have bonded to each other. They are the simplest of the hydrocarbon species and are composed entirely of single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen. The general formula for saturated hydrocarbons is CnH2n+2.

Unsaturated Hydrocarbons are compounds of carbon and hydrogen that usually contain either double or triple bonds between carbon atoms. From the name itself, unsaturated, they do not contain the highest possible number of hydrogen atoms that is four (4). Since the compound is unsaturated with respect to its hydrogen constituents, the extra electrons are shared between two (2) carbon atoms, developing double or triple bonds. Unsaturated Hydrocarbons are called Alkenes or Olefins when they contain double bond, while Alkyne is the name for this kind of hydrocarbon when they are composed of triple bonds.

Cyclohexane is a hydrocarbon containing one or more carbon rings to which hydrogen atoms are attached. The general formula for a saturated hydrocarbon containing one ring is CnH2n.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons refers to the class of compounds that have at least one aromatic ring. These compounds are also known as Arenes. This aromatic ring is also known as the Benzene ring, which is a special six carbon ring compound with three alternating double bonds. This structure imparts unique properties



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