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Aspirin Testing Results

Essay by   •  September 26, 2013  •  Case Study  •  1,439 Words (6 Pages)  •  1,283 Views

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ABSTRACT = WHAT ARE THE MAIN POINTS OF THE ENTIRE REPORT?

Through the synthesis of aspirin using an esterification reaction, and testing the purity of the prepared aspirin after the sample had been recrystallized the purity of the aspirin was able to be tested. The physical and chemical properties of aspirin were determined. An unknown substance was tested with the aid of TLC strips giving the determination that acetaminophen was our unknown drug.

INTRODUCTION

Aspirin is probably the most recognizable analgesic (pain reliever) in use today. It was first synthesized in 1893 at the Bayer Chemical Company in Germany from salicylic acid. Salicylic acid was first marketed for pain relief in 1763 though it has a sour taste and irritates the mouth and stomach lining. Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) did not have as severe side effects. Many other derivatives of salicylic acid have been tried, but none work as well as aspirin. In addition to analgesic properties, aspirin is also a fever reducer and used in treating arthritis. Side effects of aspirin, besides stomach irritation, include thinning of the blood and possible allergic reactions. Many commercial suppliers of aspirin use additives such as sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate, aluminum hydroxide and others to counteract the acidity of aspirin.

In recent years other analgesics, acetaminophen and ibuprofen, have gained widespread over the counter use. The chemical structures of these, as well as aspirin are shown below.

Acetaminophen, found in Tylenol and Datril, has both analgesic and antipyretic activity. Acetaminophen does not reduce swelling but is the only analgesic of these three which is recognized as safe for use during pregnancy.

Ibuprofen, the active ingredient in Motrin, Advil, is not only a pain reliever, but is also an excellent anti-inflammatory agent and is comparable to aspirin in the treatment of arthritis. The anti-inflammatory activity is attributed to the fact that these agents inhibit prostaglandin synthesis in the body. Several products, are available which contain a combination of more than one type of analgesic.

PURPOSE OR OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this experiment was to use an esterification reaction to synthesize aspirin. Also to purify the crude aspirin sample by recrystallization, then to test the purity of prepared aspirin and commercial aspirin products. To determine the physical and chemical properties of aspirin, finally use a thin-layer chromatography to separate and identify the components in analgesics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

EQUIPMENT USED

Part A.

* 125-mL Erlenmeyer flask

* 400-mL Beaker

* Hot plate

* Ice

* Salicylic acid

* Acetic anhydride

* 10-mL graduated cylinder

* Stirring rod

* Large beaker

* Dropper

* 85% H3PO4 in a dropper bottle

* B├╝chner filtration apparatus

* Filter paper

* Spatula

* Watch glass

* scale Part B.

* Test tubes

* Spatula

* Aspirin from part A

* Commercial aspirin tablets

* Buffered aspirin

* Acetylsalicylic acid

* 0.15%(m/v) salicylic acid

* pH indicator paper

* stirring rod

* 1% FeCl3

* 10% NaOH

* 10%HCL

* 400-mL beaker

* Hot plate

* Blue litmus paper

Part C.

* 400-mL beaker

* Saran wrap

* Solvent

* TLC plate with silica gel

* UV lamp

* Micropipettes

* Spot plates

* 1% solutions in ethanol of aspirin, ibuprofen acetaminophen, naproxen, caffeine, over-the-counter drugs

* Ruler

GRAPH 1: MATERIALS

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE = HOW EXACTLY WAS THE EXPERIMENT CONDUCTED?

PART A

For this experiment the first step was to collect all materials and substances needed. Then the weight of the Erlenmeyer flask was recorded then 2.00g of salicylic acid was added to the flask and reweighted and recorded. Then 5ml of acetic anhydride to the flask all while working under the hood. Slowly 10 drops of 85% of phosphoric acid and stirred. The

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