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Automated Green House Monitoring and Water Distribution System Using Programmable Logic Controller

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V.Harishankar1 ,M.Kumaresa Pandian2 ,H.Muhibbuddin Shaid3

1 U.G. Graduates, Dept of EIE

2 U.G. Graduates, Dept of EIE

3 U.G. Graduates, Dept of EIE

Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering, Easwari Engineering College

harivanu@yahoo.co.in, kumkk16@gmail.com ,mail2shaid@gmail.com

Abstract--To design and implement an automated greenhouse system which provides a closed environment for the plants to grow and automate the distribution of water enhancing the quality of vegetation by monitoring and controlling the required conditions using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC). Greenhouse environment forms an important part in agriculture and horticulture sectors. Existing methods based on embedded systems are bulky difficult to maintain and less appreciated by the technologically less skilled work-force. The present work is to ensure the use of programmable Logic Controllers for more efficient control of greenhouse horticulture parameters such as temperature, light intensity, humidity and water level in the tank. The developed system is easy to programmed, more reliable, many greenhouse substations could be controlled, and enhanced monitoring display screen and process could be controlled from the control room.

Keywords--Green House Automation, Horticulture, Programmable Logic Controllers.


Today, with the advent of biotechnology and due to the rise of effect of global warming, green house cultivation has become an integral part of agriculture industry. The rapid development in the field of instrumentation has provided the means of automating the green house, so as to maintain the conditions required for the plants to grow. Controlled Environment Horticulture (CEH) is the most modern and sophisticated form of greenhouse horticulture. It is sometimes referred to as "Controlled Environment Agriculture". The greenhouse is a very important piece of equipment in producing high quality produce in a sustainable and efficient way. It is important because the Greenhouse is the basis for providing an optimal growing environment for the crop. It has been proven that the optimal environment for a crop is a function of light, temperature, carbon dioxide and humidity. Hence automating the Green House is very much essential in maintaining the required conditions for the plants to go on a close environment.


The automated green house system existing is based on embedded systems, in which the environmental parameters are measured and controlled using microcontroller. The major difficulties faced in such systems involve the programming of the microcontroller, design of separate isolation circuitry and the visual description of the entire process. It is tedious to troubleshoot and communication capabilities are less for microcontrollers in the industry level.


The proposed system makes use of programmable logic controllers to meet the industrial standards which is helpful in large scale control of agricultural fields. The main advantages of PLC over microcontrollers are increased reliability, easy programming and more flexibility in modifying the program, easy to troubleshoot, communication capability is more as PLC can communicate with other controllers or computer equipment for supervisory control, data gathering and monitoring the process. Hence it helps in proper utilization of money for automation of green house agricultural fields as initial investment by farmers is only required and maintenance cost is less.


The main operation of automating the Green House is carried out through PLC which is used as the controller, and interfaced with a computer for monitoring (display screen) and to upload and download the PLC programs. The required conditions for a plant to grow are studied thoroughly and necessary calculations are done so as to provide the required set point for each crop. The PLC program is programmed suitably and uploaded and downloaded to the PLC. The sensors used here are, the temperature sensor, the humidity sensor and the light intensity sensor. The input parameters such as temperature, humidity, and light intensity are sensed by their respective sensors and given as input signal to the PLC. The PLC obtains these values and compares it with the set point mentioned in the program and decides the control action to be taken. The actuators that are used here to control the parameters are water sprinklers based on humidity, heater and cooler based on temperature and sun light shelter based on light intensity.

The humidity condition of the planted area is sensed by the humidity sensor, the sensor value is compared with the set point, based on which the water sprinklers can be turned on or off. The temperature conditions for any plant is important and it is sensed using LM35 sensor whose output is given as input to PLC and the value is compared with the set point. If the value is higher than the set point, then PLC actuates the cooler and if the value is lower than the set point then PLC actuates the heater. The light intensity is measured using cadmium sulphide sensor whose value is compared with the set point, depending on which a sun light shelter is used to control the light intensity inside the Green House by the opening and closing of the window on top with the help of a motor mechanism. Display screen is interfaced with PLC which is used as a means of data gathering and monitoring, and allowing the controller to change the set point of the required parameters in the computer itself, making the automation process easier.


The block diagram consists of sensors to sense the parameters, programmable logic controller interfaced to the computer and actuators which are used to control the required parameters. The PLC used in the process is ABB (ASEA BROWN BOVERI) analog and digital type clamped to each other.


A sensor



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