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Biofuels Production Is Expected to offer New Opportunities to Diversify Income and Fuel Supply Sources

Essay by   •  November 10, 2017  •  Research Paper  •  338 Words (2 Pages)  •  355 Views

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  1. Biofuels production is expected to offer new opportunities to diversify income and fuel supply sources, to promote employment in rural areas, to develop long term replacement of fossil fuels, and to reduce GHG emissions, boosting the decarbonisation of transportation fuels and increasing the security of energy supply.
  2. The most common biofuels are biodiesel and bio-ethanol, which can replace diesel and gasoline, respectively, in today cars with little or none modifications of vehicle engines. They are mainly produced from biomass or renewable energy sources and contribute to lower combustion emissions than fossil fuels per equivalent power output. They can be produced using existing technologies and be distributed through the available distribution system. For this reason biofuels are currently pursued as a fuel alternative that can be easily applied until other options harder to implement, such as hydrogen, are available.
  3. Biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils (edible or non-edible) or animal fats. Since vegetable oils may also be used for human consumption, it can lead to an increase in price of food-grade oils, causing the cost of biodiesel to increase and preventing its usage, even if it has advantages comparing with diesel fuel.
  4. Different microalgae species can be adapted to live in a variety of environmental conditions. Thus, it is possible to find species best suited to local environments or specific growth characteristics, which is not possible to do with other current biodiesel feedstocks (e.g. soybean, rapeseed, sunflower and palm oil).
  5. Microalgae can provide feedstock for several different types of renewable fuels such as biodiesel, methane, hydrogen, ethanol, among others. Algae biodiesel contains no sulfur and performs as well as petroleum diesel, while reducing emissions of particulate matter, CO, hydrocarbons, and SOx.

Marine and freshwater

microalgae species

Lipid content

(% dry weight biomass)

Lipid

productivity (mg/L/day)

Volumetric productivity

of biomass (g/L/day)

Areal productivity

of biomass (g/m2

/day)

1

Ankistrodesmus sp

24.0-31.0

-

-

1.15-17.4

2

Botryococcus braunii

25.0-75.0

-

0.02

3.0

3

Chaetoceros muelleri

33.6

21.8

0.07

-

4

Chaetoceros calcitrans

14.6-16.4/39.8

17.6

0.04

-

5

Chlorella emersoni

25.0-63.0

10.3-50.0

0.036-0.041

0.91-0.97

6

Chlorella protothecoides

14.6-57.8

1214

2.00-7.70

-

7

Chlorella sorokiniana

19.0-22.0

44.7

0.23-1.47

-

8

Chlorella vulgaris

5.0-58.0

11.2-40.0

0.02-0.20

0.57-0.95

9

Chlorella sp

10.0-48.0

42.1

0.02-2.50

1.61-16.47/25

10

Chlorella pyrenoidosa

2.0

-

2.90-3.64

72.5/130

11

Chlorella

18.0-57.0

18.7

-

3.50-13.90

12

Chlorococcum sp

19.3

53.7

0.28

-

13

Crypthecodinium cohnii

20.0-51.1

-

10

-

14

Dunaliella salina

6.0-25.0

116.0

0.22-0.34

1.6-3.5/20-38

15

Dunaliella primolecta

23.1

-

0.09

14

16

Dunaliella tertiolecta

16.7-71.0

-

0.12

-

17

Dunaliella sp

17.5-67.0

33.5

-

-

18

Ellipsoidion sp.

27.4

47.3

0.17

-

19

Euglena gracilis

14.0-20.0

-

7.70

-

20

Haematococcus pluvialis

25.0

-

0.05-0.06

10.2-36.4

21

Isochrysis galbana

7.0-40.0

-

0.32-1.60

-

22

Isochrysis sp

7.1-33.0

37.8

0.08-0.17

-

23

Monodus subterraneu

16.0

30.4

0.19

-

24

Monallanthus salina

20.0-22.0

-

0.08

12

25

Nannochloris sp

20.0-36.0

60.9-76.5

0.17-0.51

-

26

Nannochloropsis oculata.

22.7-29.7

84.0-142.0

0.37-0.48

-

27

Nannochloropsis sp

12.0-53.0

37.6-90.0

0.17-1.43

1.9-5.3

28

Neochloris oleoabundans

29.0-65.0

90.0-134.0

-

-

29

Nitzschia sp

16.0-47.0

8.8-21.6

30

Oocystis pusilla

10.5

-

-

40.6-45.8

31

Pavlova salina

30.9

49.4

0.16

-

32

Pavlova lutheri

35.5

40.2

0.14

-

33

Phaeodactylum tricornutum

18.0-57.0

44.8

0.003-1.9

2.4-21

34

Porphyridium cruentum

9.0-18.8/60.7

34.8

0.36-1.50

25

35

Scenedesmus obliquus

11.0-55.0

-

0.004-0.74

-

36

Scenedesmus quadricauda

1.9-18.4

35.1

0.19

-

37

Scenedesmus sp.

19.6-21.1

40.8-53.9

0.03-0.26

2.43-13.52

38

Skeletonema sp

13.3-31.8

27.3

0.09

-

39

Skeletonema costatum

13.5-51.3

17.4

0.08

-

40

Spirulina platensis

4.0-16.6

-

0.06-4.4

1.5-14.5/24-51

41

Spirulina maxima

4.0-9.0

-

0.21-0.25

25

42

Thalassiosira pseudonana

20.6

17.4

0.08

-

43

Tetraselmis suecica

8.5-23.0

27.0-36.4

0.12-0.32

19

44

Tetraselmis sp.

12.6-14.7

43.4

0.30

-

...

...

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