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Biostatistics - Data Analysis and Presentation

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Data analysis and presentation[pic 1][pic 2]

        Students were given two (2) sets of data to analyze. Both sets of data were answer sheets of students from high school and college answering the questions: What do you like the most and the least about Math?  The students decided on three (3) factors to apply statistical analysis to, namely: The number of students with family names starting with either a vowel or a consonant, the number of occurrence of the words “Problem”/ “Problems” and the quality of handwriting.[pic 3]

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            In the data gathered, the consonants and vowels were designated as Nominal Data. This is because the occurrence of consonants or vowels in their names is not indicative of any specific order or ratio among the respondents. They simply indicate that their names start with either a consonant or a vowel.

            The quality of handwriting is designated as Ordinal Data. The datum only indicates the order of the respondents based on the quality of their handwriting, and has no quantifiable value whatsoever.

            The number of times the word “problem/s” appeared in the respondent’s work is designated as Interval/Ratio. The datum has a quantity, which is the number of times that the word ‘problem/s’ appeared.

            The measures of central tendency that we found appropriate for the data were the mode and the mean. The mode was used for the nominal data and the ordinal data. The mean was used for the interval/ratio data.

            For the Nominal data, the modal class is the class with the last names starting with a consonant. In the Ordinal data, the modal class is ‘Fair’. For the Interval/Ratio, the mean of the sample is 1.4, the variance is 1.4, and the standard deviation is 1.2.

Below are the raw data used in the analysis:

Table 1. Distribution of Selected High School and College Students by the First Letter of Their Last Names

First Letter of Last Name






Mode = Consonant

Table 2. Distribution of the Selected High School and College Students by the Occurrence of the Word “Problem” or “Problems”

Occurrence of the Word “Problem” or “Problems”










Four Times


Five Times


Mean = 1.4

Variance = 1.4

Standard Deviation = 1.2




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