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Real Data Analysis

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A1: What were the results in terms of the mean?

The coffee Group mean was 22.5 and the Placebo Group was 36.4.

The mean difference is -13.875.

The mean difference suggest that there is a statistical significance between the coffee group and the placebo group. It presents that coffee users obviously have a faster neural processing time or processing time as it is alluded to in this hypothetical research question. If the limits forced by chance 95% of the time are at least 5 or less chance outside the boundaries set for this research question, then the results are most likely significant. The + / - 13 correlation displays significant statistical difference.

A2: What was the level of significance (p value)?

A: What is the probability that chance explained this mean difference?

It is questionable that chance would disclose a high mean difference between the two groups and results are likely not due to chance. So it discloses a p value of .02, displaying that 2 out of 100 trials will show a difference outside of the usual boundaries. We can presume this with the p value that shows the probability of chances.

B: What is the null hypothesis in this study?

In the population of coffee drinkers and the non-coffee drinker, was no difference in their reaction time, which was measured by an easy simple test.

C: Are the results "significant" or "not significant"?

The results were significant.

D: What is your decision regarding the null hypothesis: accept or reject? Why?

I would reject this hypothesis because of the liability of the p value of .02 implies a statistical significant showing the null hypothesis is false. Therefore the coffee drinkers apparently have a good chance in having a greater reaction time than the non-coffee drinkers.

Educational Research Analysis: Testing vs. Teaching: Perceived Impact of Assessment Demands on Middle Grades Instructional Practices

Cook, Christopher M., Faulkner, Shawn A. Testing versus Teaching: The Perceived Impact of Assessment Demands on Middle Grades Instructional Practices. Research in Middle Level Education Online, 29 (7) 1-13, 2006.

Part B: Research Analysis and Critique


"The primary purpose of the study was to provide a "snapshot" of the status of middle grades education in the region." (Cook 2006) The secondary purpose of the study was to explore middle grade teachers' perceptions of how high- stakes testing and state accountability standards influence instructional strategies utilized in the classroom. (Cook 2006)

One significant study showed that young adolescents are best engaged through meaningful, hands on activity and experience greater academic success when included in the decision making process. (Cook 2006) One compelling idea informs that middle school should incorporate the following tenets: provide a challenges curriculum, use various teaching styles and creating test that promote quality learning. This research is problem based since it focuses on high stakes testing and the expectations of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The problem lays in trying to find the various teaching styles and teaching high stakes tests in the classroom to improve the student's scores.

The most significant construct is student learning and improving achievement scores on the high stakes test like Commonwealth Accountability Testing System (CATS). The published research is quantitative since the results are standardized test scores. It is inferential because the p values are meant for a generalization to a larger population that of 17 middle level school in the Northern Kentucky area. It reflects a true experimental research design. It is considered to be correlational and group subject because of the size of the sampling groupings. This study incorporates the teacher method consisting on how what teachers are teaching in the classrooms. Finally it is relatively small scale analysis since it was only a small portion of participants in Northern Kentucky that participated. It does not include a large, generalization data that is needed in order to make changes to any educational policy.

The study's independent variable was the high stake assessments, the level are CATS, the intervention, and the traditional teaching and testing strategies. The dependent variable was changing scores on the CATS for the middle school graders. The attribute variable was the achievement level of students, with the study showing "Analysis of high stakes test data from 28 states suggest that the performance of high stake testing states remains comparable to the non high stakes testing states in the nation. (Cook 2)

The research design was a true experimental design that included three data sets that were analyzed. This study consisted of active experimental interventions through the teachers. Several control procedures were used in this study; including 13 Likert format, most common instructional strategies used in middle school and the influence of the portfolio.

The sample in this study consisted of 17 schools in Northern Kentucky, 182 classroom teachers, and 804 eligible participants in the sample. The Middle School Concept Implementation Survey (MSCIS) gathered data from middle school personnel. It consisted of 66 Likert format items, three open ended response items, and demographic data items. Evidence of reliability and validity of the system was not provided; but you can read other research reports.

The researchers focused on one main hypothesis in which they are trying to see middle grade teachers' perception of how high stakes testing and state accountability standards influence instructional strategies utilized in the classroom. The researchers analyzed their data with covariance models, t test for mean differences and effect size measures.

Their major finding was that students in Northern Kentucky's middle schools are more likely than not to attend schools that adhere to the tenets of the philosophy; one cannot assume a direct correlation between support for, and implementation of the concepts. (Cook 2006)

Their education discussion indicated the idea that a well designed curriculum with instructional assessment minus the high stake testing could improve the students learning. The students could focus on class work and not worry about when is the next high stake test?




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