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Brief History Notes on Civil War

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Class notes on Civil war

Complicated war. over 100s of battles.

1st ½ East-

Winfield Scott-general drew up Anaconda Plan which is the war plan

1. Take Richmond, VA (east)- capital of confederacy in

2. Take control of MS River (west)-then AR,

3. Control form both sides- crunch the confederacy from both sides

Scott chose Erwin McDowell to oversee

People forgot about war. Town people came to watch the two sides fight.

McDowell: 1st Bull Run (Manassas the town, bull run the river)-

1st significant battle w/ McDowell. Both pushed on each other. Union ran away. Confederates chased them until they reach D.C. and did not enter the Northern soil. Confederates decided they will fight a defensive war bc they will not wage war unless they have to.

Lincoln was displeased with McDowell so he appointed McClellan (30s yr old general) "young Napoleon." He was good at training and organization but not good at fighting. Lincoln asked if they were ready and they weren't. Then finally McClellan felt his army was ready:

McClellan: Peninsular Campaign -goal was to invade VA but

They were defeated.

Pope: 2nd Bull Run

Since Confederates felt like they were winning so much, Lee and Davis decided to move the war north, go in MD and then MD will secede and DE will secede too.

Another reason why they want to take war to north: Trent (brit naval vessel). US took confederates off trent. Brit push for war and set up invasion force in Canada. Lincoln try to work something out. When brit fights US, Lee and Davis plan to attack north.

McClellan: Antietam (Sharpsburg south)

McClellan got a copy of Lee's order. Both slaughter each other all day. Lee withdrew. Lincoln took this opportunity and wanted to share an idea with the world. Lincoln announced:

Emancipation Proclamation - did not actually free anybody, it was a first step towards the ending of slavery. Lincoln freed the slave in confederates states. His message to the confederates was the price of seceding is losing the slaves. He is letting British and French know this war is about slavery. So if they keep helping the south they are encouraging slavery. Lincoln sent letters back and forth with the queen's king then Britain begin to withdraw invasion force and their support for the south. Lincoln is still not happy with McClellan.

Burnside, Hooker (all the armies have a lot of women that follow along for a fee), "bummer" northern soldiers who would break off from his unit and do terrible things.

Lee and Davis met again and decide to take the war North but this time not in MD but in PA.

Confederate General Meade: battle result from Lee's invasion in PA: Gettysburg- 2 huge armies: something 90,000 guys both sides . They killed each other for 3 days. Lee then withdrew and this time he accepted defeat. Lee's army will never be as big as they were in Gettysburg. This is the last time Lee will try to invade the north. In the east this was the turning point. Ended 4th of July 1863

Out West: gain MS river from both sides

West 1st ½

Grant - was great but during his outpost duty he became alcoholic, hired from father in law. He climbed his way back to the position he had then soon become general. He won 2 significant battles. He proved he could fight, direct action, win.

Ft. Henry

Ft. Donelson

Vicksburg- union fights with siege operation as confederate found its way to MS. Union circled Vicksburg and cut if off from outside connection. Siege keeps all your guys alive. Union send guys in irregularly. Siege after a year, people gave up. Now MS river belongs to US. All West of MS river TX and AR becomes irrelevant. Fall of Vicksburg is on 7/4/63 same day as east. Double victory.

Grant now commander in the EAST 2nd ½

Grant v. Lee

1st battle: Wilderness Campaign. North went down south, met Lee's army, got whipped, moved lateral, wash and repeat.

Battle of Cold Harbor: Grant order 3 rounds and loss 6000

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