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Causes and Consecuences of Toyota Case Study

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  1. Marketing Research: A Definition

It is a systematic procedure to identify, collect, record and analyze all the data related to the problems in the commercialization of goods and services to improve the decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities.

Market research understand consumer and apply information and knowledge for mutual benefit

  1. Marketing Research and Decision-Making

Marketing Research is the systematic and objective collection and interpretation of data to help reduce risk in marketing decisions.

Decision-making: to take a decision in order to reduce risk in the uncertainty, first step is to identification of needed information, incorrect information will provide useless, confusion, chaos. Next, information has to be obtained in reasonable cost and time.

  1. Marketing research process
  • Definition of the problem
  • Develop the approach of the problem (planteamiento del problema)
  • Formulate research design
  • Fieldwork (trabajo de campo)
  • Preparation and analysis of data
  • Preparation of the final report

  1. Formulating the Problem

Formulating a problem is the first step in the research process. In many ways, research starts with a problem that management is facing. This problem needs to be understood, the cause diagnosed, and solutions developed. However, most management problems are not always easy to research. A management problem must first be translated into a research problem.

  1. Relation between the problem and the objectives

A clear statement of objectives will help you develop effective research. It will help the decision makers evaluate your project. It’s critical that you have manageable objectives. (Two or three clear goals will help to keep your research project focused and relevant.)

  1. Differences between quantitative and qualitative approach





Hypothesis are proved (accepted of refused)

Hypothesis are generated during or at the end of the research

Theory necessary

Theory referential

Data: number, charts, figures

Data: opinion, experiences, ideas

Deductive General: theories to data

Inductive Specific: data to theories


Not generalyze

  1. Scope of the investigation: Exploratory, descriptive, correlational and explanatory











Determine a problem

Reach a theory

It shows ideas, feelings, needs, etc…

Tables, charts, figures

Correlation (statistical)


It shows incidences, impacts, causes


  1. Types of data sources

Primary and Secondary data

  1. Primary data sources

Primary data is the data collected by the researcher themselves

  • Interview
  • Observing
  • Case studies
  • Life histories
  • Ethnographic research

  1. Secondary Data sources

Secondary data collects data that already exists, which someone has done for their own purpose (database)

  • Previous research
  • Diaries
  • Mass media
  • Internet
  • Databases

  1. Definition and construction of hypothesis

Hypothesis is a statement or proposition about a factor or phenomenon that has not been tested, something that we want to prove.

Hypothesis is an empirically testable thought yet unproven statement developed in order to explain a phenomenon, it is based on preconceived notion of the relationship between data derived manager or the researcher, these notions come from existing theory or practices observed. There are 2 specifics hypotheses: null hypothesis states that there is no difference between the phenomenon, and alternative hypothesis state that there is true difference between phenomenon.



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