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Final Year Paper

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IMPACT OF JOB SECURITY, JOB EMBEDDEDNESS, AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT TOWARDS JOB PERFORMANCE AMONG EMPLOYEES IN KUALA LUMPUR.

A Proposal Submitted

By

A project submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements of

Asia Pacific University of Technology and Innovation for the Degree of

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE        5

INTRODUCTION        5

1.1 Background of Study        5

1.2 Problem Identification        7

1.3 Research Objective        10

1.3.1 General Research Objective        10

1.3.2 Specific Research Objectives        10

1.4 Research Framework        10

1.5 Research Questions        11

1.6 Hypothesis        11

1.7 Significance of Study        12

1.7.1 Theoretical perspective        12

1.7.2 Management perspective        12

1.7.3 Academic perspective        12

1.8 Limitation of Study        12

1.9 Terminology of the Study        13

1.10 Deliverables        15

CHAPTER TWO        16

LITERATURE REVIEW        16

2.1 Job Performance        17

2.2 Job Security        19

2.3 Job Embeddedness        21

2.4 Employee Engagement        23

2.5 Relationship between Job Security and Job Performance        25

2.6 Relationhsip between Job Embeddedness and Job Performance        26

2.7 Relationship between Employee Engagement and Job Performance        27

2.8 Theory Building        28

2.8.1 Family Resource Management Model        28

2.8.2 Social Exchange Theory        29

2.8.3 Campbell Theory        30

CHAPTER THREE        31

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY        31

3.1 Research Design and Sampling Methodology        32

3.1.1 Research Design        32

3.1.2 Sampling Methodology        32

3.2 Research Philosophy        34

3.3 Research Approach        35

3.4 Research Strategy        35

3.5 Data        36

3.6 Time Series        36

3.7 Instrumentation        37

3.7.1 Job Security        37

3.7.2 Job Embeddedness        39

3.7.3 Employee Engagement        41

3.7.4 Job Performance        43

3.3 Research Questionnaire Layout        45

3.3.1 Section A        45

3.3.2 Section B to Section E        46

3.4 Data Analysis and Interpretation        47

3.5 Ethical Considerations        48

4.0 References        49


List of Figure

Figure 1: Research Framework……………………………………………………... 10

Figure 2: Raosoft Sample Size Calculator………………………………………….. 32

List of Table

Table 1: Job Security……………………………………………………………….. 38

Table 2: Job Embeddedness…………………………………………….................... 40

Table 3: Employee Engagement……………………………………………….…… 42

Table 4: Job Performance………………..…………………………………………. 44

Table 5: Questionnaire’s Layout …………………………………………………… 46


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of Study

Organizations around the world compel by current global competitive environment to enhance and increase their performances (Al-Dhaafri, et al., 2014). Hence, employees are the most important asset in every organization since human capitals turn to be a key factor in the orientation of the company and employees represent the foundation of any organization to stay competitive in every country (Gabcanova, 2011). Ferreira, et al. (2012) claimed that employees have the high possibility to perform well only with proper management and working environment as the contribution of employees are significant to their performance. Refers to Aon (2014), Asia Pacific conquers almost two-thirds of engaged employees among the world and Malaysia has 14 million of people that were employed (Trading Economics, 2016). To note, there are approximately 853 thousand of employees in the capital city of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur and they will be the sample in this study (Department of Statistic Malaysia, Official Portal, 2016). Each employee has different characteristics such as age group, gender, marital status as well as length of employment. In belief, these demographic factors will influence employees’ commitment toward their performance (Jena, 2015).

Job performance refers to the quality and quantity of the result once the employees accomplish a mission or task. It can always be measure, monitor and evaluated in terms of individual achievement (Almutairi, 2016). Karavardar (2014) also argued that job performance can be defined as a set of behaviour, individual characteristic and function of outcomes for employees. The acts of employees that perform can contributes to the success of an organization. Besides that, due to the global economic pressure, most of the organisation realised that job security of employee may affect their performance (Lucky, et al., 2013). Based on Jandaghi, et al. (2011), job security is the probability of missing job and non-achieving proper jobs. Job security also acts as a part of job satisfaction which will affect employees’ performance because of its relationship with work attitude (Fatimah, et al., 2012). On top of that for job embeddedness, it is defined as the combination of forces that influence employees remaining in the organisation (Nafei, 2015). Cho and Son, (2012) also argued that as job embeddedness depends on the intrapersonal reasons toward the organisation and it also emphases on a set of forces that attract the individual towards the survival in the organisation. Furthermore, employee engagement is also defined as the combination and relabeling notions, such as commitment, satisfaction, involvement, motivation and extra-role performance of the employee (Schaufeli, 2014). Ariani (2013) also claimed employee engagement as an enthusiasm and involvement of a person on his or her job. An individual usually employ and express themselves physically, cognitively and emotionally during working performance. In belief, there was a positive relationship between employee engagement and their job performance.

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