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Cost Estimation of Project in Final Year on Automatic Solar Tracker

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cost estimation of project in final year on automatic solar tracker

Fig 2: Horizontal sensor electronic circuit

The LDR(SAY LDR A) which is always illuminated by light through FRESNEL LENS ARRAY, has Low Resistance(in presence of light resistance of LDR decreases and vice-versa). We know V(OUT)=V(IN)*[R(bottom)]/[R(bottom)+R(top)], where R stands For Resitance. So in SUNLIGHT, when LDR A's resistance Decreases, VOLTAGE AT PIN 4 Increases. TIMER is no more RESET. PIN 2 is now lower than 1/3 rd Vcc(as the horizontal LDR 1, say LDR B does not initially receive light through its rectangular slit, so its resistance is high(Rtop=8 K ohms), consequently V(OUT) is low). This triggers the timer which gives a pulse to Decade Counter's Clock(14) PIN and triggers it. The Decade Counter CD 4017 gives a NORMAL STEP DRIVE pulse to the Horizontal Unipolar Stepper Motor 1(coupled to the tracker unit) to rotate the tracker position so as to receive sunlight(STEP ANGLE of 2 DEGREES). This goes on till the horizontal LDR 1 is fully in SUNLIGHT(resistance low, so PIN 2'S VOLTAGE HIGH). Thus the tracker has followed the SUN Horizontally.

Fig 3: Horizontal Sensor electronic circuit

We will come to the Vertical Sensor Module, but first let us see what the DAWN LDR(SAY LDR C) does. At night the horizontal Module timer 555 remains Reset(as LDR A is in darkness so its resistance is high, thus pin 4 voltage is low, and the TRACKER points at WEST(where SUN has set). Next day when SUN rises again in the EAST, the DAWN LDR which is located at the back of the TRACKER, points at EAST. So when it receives sunlight its Resistance goes low, thus Voltage at pin 4 is high and the timer triggers the Decade Counter which in turn switches the Motor on, thus the TRACKER again moves towards the EAST. Then the TRACKER functions as previously.

Now placed with the Horizontal Sensor LDR 1 is another similar LDR 2 which receives the sunlight as and when does LDR 1. SEE FIGURE 3. So now, as LDR B(THE 1st horizontal one) receives sunlight, so does Horizontal LDR 2(SEE FIGURE 1, THESE 2 LDRs are placed together with same alignment properties and separated by an optically insulated coating(from each other).Thus when Motor 1 comes to rest, and as the second horizontal LDR (SAY LDR D),is same way coupled to the second timer's(of Vertical Module) Reset pin as was the ALWAYS ILLUMINATED LDR A, it brings the second timer out of its Reset mode) by the previously discussed VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP). EYE SENSOR LDR(SAY LDR E) of the tracker receives sunlight by an Anti-Reflection Coated, small Rectangular Slit, so reacts only when SUN directly points at it. The second 555's PIN 2 is same way connected to this LDR as was the first 555's to Horizontal LDR 1. So now that it still



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