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Fundaments of Research Paper

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Fundaments of Research Paper

Reliability and validity are examples of important criterion used to determine how well measurements tools are fulfilling their functions (Creswell, 2008). Reliability is viewed as consistent, stable and dependable. Reliability acts as a bridge between validity and reliability. Validity implies that relationship can be mirrored with different participants in different settings. In reliability we expect consistency in our results and reliable test. There are different types of reliability tools. The internal-consistency reliability looks at the items of the test and how well each relates to one another.

Validity is one of the criterions that demonstrate how well the measurement tool does what it purports to do. There are different type's validity measurement tools. Criterion validity determines how well scores on the test are correlated. Construct validity provides insurance for measuring tools because it insures we are measuring the concept in question. Another validity tool is the content validity. Content validity determines how adequately the tool has sampled then universe of content it purports to measure (Creswell, 2008). An example of validity measuring tool is a MRI scanner that is monitoring brain activity. This measuring tool is used by Health care professionals to scans, so they can diagnose a variety of conditions.

The data collection method begins with identifying and selecting participants for the study. Researchers must obtain permission from participants prior to beginning the study. Data collection includes interviewing individuals and observing their behaviors. The collection of this data provides numbers and words (Creswell, 2008). The number gives the researcher test scores and frequency of behaviors and the words provides responses, opinions, quotes. A collection instruments used in human services research are surveys. Surveys allow for individuals who may have participated in human service programs the opportunity to give their opinion of the program. Survey results give human services providers tools to make improvements.

Ethical practices are important to ensuring that data collection methods and instruments are both reliable and valid. When reporting results researchers need to remain with honesty and integrity(Rosnow& Rosenthal,2008). Researches should disclose their raw data, give credit where due and provide footnotes if the researcher borrowed the idea.

There are many examples of different data collection methods and instruments used in managerial research. Methods of gathering data is essential to the success of a study. Data can be collected in a form of web questionnaires. Web questionnaires gives researchers control over the quality of the data collected. Clinical and research databases allows researchers to identify participants in their research.



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