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How Have International Terrorism Events, Such as 9/11 and the Paris Bombings, Affected Canadian Domestic and Foreign Policy?

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How have international terrorism events, such as 9/11 and the Paris bombings, affected Canadian domestic and foreign policy?

 

Shujie xu

Student ID:20121924

Darryl Eisan
POLS1101:75
4 November 2016

The beginning of this century coincided with the objective necessity of the revision of the military policy in Canada. The catalyst for this process were the events of September 11, 2001. Given the great interdependence in all areas of Canada with its southern country, it was obvious that the terrorist attack on the United States very strongly affects all aspects of Canadian life, including its policy in the field of defense and security. Canadian Guide was not immediately forcing the revision of military policy (such a review is traditionally expressed in the publication of the Ministry of National Defense of the appropriate instrument is the White Paper on Defense). As the Minister of National Defense, Art Eggleton, speaking November 9, 2001, in the Parliament, the review of military policy will be implemented only after reducing the terrorist threat. Beginning of 2002, when major combat operations in Afghanistan have already been completed, the Canadian government has begin to  prepare  a new White Paper on Defense. “At February 21, 2002, Eggleton has officially announced that the government starts a radical revision of military policy” (Hoveyda, Fereydoun).

The main consider in the preparation of a new White Paper is given to issues such as opportunities, availability, and structure of the armed forces, and how much money Canadians able to spend on the military. Although the political decision has been made, it was only the beginning of the prepare stage . “The relevant research and study of military experts offer began. Also, it takes into account the opinion and the Canadian citizens” (Spitzig, Amanda). This process could not be too fast, and because the prime of the Canada most be understand the political orientation of the Unit State

To reflect the new threats, the primarily international terrorism, the White Paper on Defense in 2005 announced a new approach to the defense of Canada. By analogy with the US Department of Homeland Security in Canada was created by the Ministry of Public Security (MPS), performs the same function. Much attention has been paid for the capacity of the country's intelligence. As stated in the White Paper, "the government should improve the collection, analysis, use and sharing of information, especially regarding the huge volume of air, land and maritime traffic in the area of our jurisdiction." As part of the Canadian Security Intelligence Service was created interdepartmental Threat Assessment Center, which was supposed to flow all information about threats to Canada, and transmit the information to who need. And extends the personal capabilities of the Canadian Communications Security Bureau agents in conducting electronic intelligence.

A more significant contribution to protecting Canada and resist the terrorism had to make and the armed forces. About the new strategy, they already put some specific targets in front of them: firstly, to increase cooperation with civil authorities to prevent serious threats to Canada; Secondly strengthen measures to ensure the sovereignty and security of Canada and the air and sea space around it, including the Arctic; thirdly increase the efficiency in the collection, analysis and use of information obtained from the sea, land, air and space surveillance systems; fourthly enhance the presence of the armed forces within the country, at the same time improving the possibilities of transferring them to where they are needed. Canadian Special Operations Forces Command has a pronounced anti-terrorist orientation. It includes a “special counter-terrorism unit (JTF-2), a special company of experts in the field of nuclear, chemical and biological protection, and a squadron of helicopters to provide air support operations” (Hoveyda, Fereydoun). The responsibility is not limit for the different area, different time. Creation of a rapid reaction battalions envisaged as part of the overall increase in the number of Canadian Forces. “It is expected to create four such battalions. These elements will be located at strategic sites - in Common, Trenton, Bagotville and Goose Beye to ensure the presence of the armed forces and their possible use in the event of natural disasters or terrorist acts.” (Kitchen, Veronica and Karthika Sasikumar).

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