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Methods of Birth Control

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1. A sexually active woman that is fertile and capable of becoming pregnant needs to ask herself, "Do I want to become pregnant now?" if her answer is "No", she must use at least a method of birth control. This is because over the years, events have shown that uncontrolled births have negative social economic impact on the population. Amongst the effects of uncontrolled births are unwanted children, overpopulation, increased maternal mortality, overcrowding, overstretched public utilities, reduced standard of living and the non-development in the rural areas.

2. Despite these facts, a section of the population still do not make use of these methods of birth control due to religious or moral believes. The awareness of birth control dates back to era of our great-grandmothers, when after childbirth they stopped sex with their husbands until the child is weaned. Information is key to liberation; therefore, to reduce these negative impacts, the need to use the correct method of birth control arises. The use of appropriate birth control method allows individuals to plan their envisioned lives. It is against this background that I will be reviewing the methods of birth control practised in Nigeria.


3. The aim of this presentation is to highlight birth control methods available to Nigerians.


4. The presentation will cover the following:

a. Methods of birth Control.

b. Natural Methods of Birth Control.

c. Artificial Methods of Birth Control.

d. Consequences of Methods of Birth Control.

Methods of Birth Control.

5. Birth control is an umbrella term for several practices or devices used to prevent fertilization or the interruption of pregnancy in a sexually active woman. It could be in form of family planning, pregnancy prevention, fertility control, contraception or contragestion. Government policy or health related issues might demand the use of a birth control method. Different birth control method requires different actions by its users to accomplish desired result. The choice of method depends on the suitability to individual body chemistry or life style.

6. When the desire to use a birth control method arises, cost medical advice or compatibility with our bodies, most times helps to make a decision. Methods of birth control can be broadly grouped under:

a. Natural Methods of Birth control.

b. Artificial Methods of Birth Control.


7. Natural methods of birth control are neither mechanical nor due to hormone manipulation but on observing some aspect of a woman's body physiology in order to prevent fertilization. These methods require that a man and woman do not allow a woman's egg or the sperm to come into contact by natural means. Natural Methods of birth control include:

a. Total abstinence.

b. Fertility awareness Method.

c. Withdrawal.

d. Breast feeding

8. Total Abstinence. Total Abstinence is a means of birth control were the parties voluntary refraining from sexual activity. Abstinence is the only contraceptive method that is 100% effective in the prevention of both pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases.

9. Fertility Awareness Method (FAM). Fertility awareness methods are based on knowledge of a woman's ovulation period. In order to use a FAM, it is necessary to watch for the signs and symptoms that indicate ovulation has occurred or is about to occur. FAM can be up to 90% effective if well observed and require a continuous and conscious commitment with considerable monitoring and self-control. FAM Includes:

a. Billings ovulation method

b. Basal body temperature.

10. Withdrawal. Withdrawal involves the deliberate removal of the erect penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation. The main risk of withdrawal is that the man may not perform the manoeuvre correctly, or may not perform the withdrawal in a timely manner and the aim is defeated.

11. Breast feeding. Breastfeeding may delay the return to fertility for some women by suppressing ovulation. This is effective only when exclusive breastfeeding is being done and lasts up for up to six months after childbirth.


12. This involves the use of external substance or material to prevent pregnancy. Success rate is relatively high compared to FAM. This method includes the following:

a. Barrier method.

b. Intrauterine Devices.

c. Hormonal Contraceptive.

d. Surgical



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