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Multicultural Counseling Annotated Bibliography

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Kristin M. Medellin

Liberty University

Annotated Bibliography

Kimber, T. R. (2012). The role of spiritual development in the cross-cultural reentry adjustment of missionaries. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 40 (3), 211-219. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.liberty.edu/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/docview/1152080388?accountid=12085

Kimber surveys former missionaries to discover if their relationship with God influences their ability to handle the challenges that accompany re-assimilation into their home culture. No prior research can be found which considers the role of a missionary’s relationship with God, so six instruments which have been used in similar research (Spiritual Assessment Inventory, Sociocultural Adaptation Scale, Acculturation Index, Transition Change Scale, Repatriation Preparedness Scale, and Repatriation Distress Scale) are assembled with the addition of five questions designed to measure the theological impact on re-assimilation. The researchers use the data to compare various aspects of the former missionary’s faith (calling, relationship with God, practicing spiritual disciplines, and being received home by their community) with his or her reaction to multiple challenges experienced during re-assimilation to determine if there is a correlation. The results show a strong positive correlation between relationship with God and ability to successfully adjust to reentry into their home culture. This suggests that teaching returning missionaries about the possible challenges they may encounter and highlighting the benefits of strengthening their relationship with God will increase their chances of a positive reintegration back into their home culture. The data also suggests that there is increased probability of success when local churches actively seek to provide support to returning missionaries.

Vasquez-Salgado, Y. & Chavira, G. (2014). The transition from middle school to high school as a developmental process among Latino youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 36 (1), 79-94. doi: 10.1177/0739986313513718

        Vasquez-Salgado and Chavira examine whether academic trajectories across the middle and high school years are influenced by initial academic success and whether gender plays a factor. When the researchers compare three separate latent growth curve models showing change in GPA between 7th and 8th grade, 8th and 9th grade, and 9th and 10th grade, the results confirm that grades amongst Latino youth remain stable in middle school and high school, but decline during the transition between middle and high school. Results also agree with previous studies which reveal that the more a youth achieves in the first year of the transition period, the quicker their grades decline for the remainder of the transition period. Also as expected, female youth consistently demonstrated higher achievement levels throughout each stage of development, although a negative correlation was found between male and female high school trajectories (female grades decline, while male grades increase). One unexpected discovery is that, by the time they advance to the 11th grade, male possess the same achievement levels as females. Recommended actions to improve Latino youths’ academic achievement include focusing policy development and research on the transition period between middle and high school, creating educational programs for both high achievers and low achievers, and taking the gender of the youths and their diverse needs into consideration when developing these programs.



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