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Notes for Science

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Chapter 1: Notes

Ethics: the study of good and bad, right and wrong

-The set of moral principles or values held by a person or society that tells us how we ought to behave

-People use criteria, standards, or rules when making judgments

-Different cultures or worldviews lead to different values, which lead to different actions

Relativists: ethics vary with social context

Universalists: Right and wrong remains the same across cultures and situations

Ethical standards: criteria that help differentiate right from wrong

-Classical standard = virtue

-The golden rule: treat others as you want to be treated

-Environmental ethics: application of ethical standards to relationships between human and non-human entities.

-Hard to resolve; depends on the person's ethical standards

-Depends on the person's domain of ethical concern.

Three ethical perspectives

Anthropocentrism: Only humans have rights

-Gifford Pinchot

Biocentrism: certain living things also have value

Eco centrism: whole ecological systems have value

Sustainability: a guiding principle of environmental science

Living within our planet's means

-The earth can sustain humans AND organisms

-we are increasing our burden on the planet each year. Population growth, affluence, consumption.

Sustainable development: using resources to satisfy current needs without compromising future availability of resources.

Sustainability involves:

* Renewable energy resources

* Soil conservation, high efficiency irrigation, organic agriculture

* Pollution reduction

* Habitat and species protection

* Recycling

* Fighting global climate change


* Finding ways to live sustainly on Earth

Chapter 2 notes

Economics: studies how people use resources to provide goods



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