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Personality Disorder

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This paper aims to provide evidence on critical key concepts of a devastating yet a very real condition called postpartum depression and the causes and adverse effects it has on both the mothers and infants. The purpose of this paper is to examine the connection between maternal postpartum depression, the duration of postpartum and how breastfeeding effect the mothers, whether it is hormonal or mental conditions or physiological characteristics that change due to the mother after birth, ant the effect on the child as well.

Postpartum Depression and the Breastfeeding Mother


The birth of a baby can trigger and be a clutter of powerful feelings, from excitement and joy; to fear and concern. But it can also result in something that one might not imagine, depression. Depression is a serious medical illness that involves the brain. It is more than just a feeling of being down in the dumps or "baby-blues" for a few days. The mother may think these unwanted alterations are due to the hormone changes. There are more than twenty million people in the United States who have depression; these feelings will not go away. They persist and hinder ones everyday life. Depression can ruin families and can be harmful to a new born baby as a result. This disorder usually starts between the ages of fifteen-to-thirty (Reese, 2005).

Postpartum depression, or PPD, is one of the most shared problems one presents after childbirth, whether it is the first or the fifth pregnancy. It is much more common in women of low-income families and mothers who did not receive prenatal vitamins or care, and women who also are of abusive or alcohol dependent families. Postpartum depression can make one feel restless, anxious, exhausted and insignificant to their loved ones. Some new mothers worry they may hurt themselves or their babies in the first few months following the births. Unlike the "baby blues", postpartum depression does not go away as fast as one might suspect. Very rarely, new mothers progress to something even more severe. They may stop eating, causing them to be anorexic, have trouble with sleep and become hysterical with paranoia. Women with these conditions usually need to be hospitalized as soon as symptoms occur (Wylie, 2010).


New mothers, will certainly be tired when they get home! New babies have no perception of right and wrong at this early age , so sleep for the new mother may be limited. PPD can lead to major feelings of disappointment, guilt, isolation and low self-esteem, related to poor body image. This may last longer than two weeks or begin two weeks or more after delivery. As seen in Henderson's article, fifty-eighty percent of women who experience the "baby blues," have an idea that this disorder may be mild and transient. Also stated by Henderson, ten to fifteen percent of women who experience PPD will typically show classic symptoms of depression soon after delivery and present with crying, sadness, withdrawal from family member of even the infant and sleep disorders (Henderson, 2003).

Maria Muzik (2010) discussed how some women feared and fantasized themselves harming their own baby's by chocking them, or drowning them as they are being bathed. PPD is one of the most frequently undiagnosed conditions after childbirth. Roughly forty percent of cases go unnoticed. Commonly this is due to the mother's feeling of awkwardness, guilt or fear of the crazy feelings she is having, and more often than not, she will not freely acknowledge to this kind of emotional suffering. Lately the public has become more aware of this disorder due largely to celebrities coming forward about their experiences with PPD. This promotional awareness is helping women suffering from PPD to understand it, and seek the special management necessary. Nurses can educate new mothers and their families to help prevent PPD from getting to its breaking point. Early signs and symptom detection will permit the mother to get the help she needs in a timely fashion. Family members and friends should understand the development in order to see such signs. It is crucial for the health and wellbeing of the mother and her baby. Once the mother gets the proper diagnosis, she will receive certain medications, or will be taught though a counselor how to maintain her self-esteem and use the therapy to control these different behavior symptoms (Muzik, 2010).

The precise cause of PPD is not identified, but is a combination of biochemical,, social, cultural factors and psychological changes in the body. Changes in hormone levels, fatigue due to childbirth, loss of sleep, demands of a newborn, feelings of loss when separated from the newborn in the womb, and cultural norms regarding the mother's behavior are just some of the contributing causes of PPD (Rees, et al., 2005). Informing clients of the predisposing characteristics and circumstances that place them at risk is key to characteristics that present themselves as negative. Issues such as maternal history of depression, prenatal depression, and lack of social support from the family and friends, can cause stress. The child may be neglected due to the stress the mother is experiences, maternal blues, marital dissatisfaction and prenatal anxiety should all be considered during the nurse's conversation with the mother during both prenatal and postnatal visits (Rees, et al., 2005).

Another significant aspect is that at childbirth, the focus of attention transfers from the pregnant mother to the newborn. This change can trigger an effect of isolation that gives the mother a sense of being disregarded. The new mother's responsibility for her tiny baby can overwhelm her as she realizes that the infant is totally and utterly dependent on her. This can be quite a challenge with any baby (Kendall-Tackett, 2007). It can also be quite worrisome. And, of course, a new mother's life at home and her relationship with family members and spouse all change, sometimes, unsuspectingly particularly the relationship with the baby's father. Sometimes a father may feel differently about his wife after baby is born, and even act in an unpleasant and negative way. These mothers are in great need for attention. If they do not feel they are getting the affection, they may regress to depression and may lose the bond with their new born. This poses to become a problem in breast feeding mother (Kendall-Tackett, 2007).

The first postpartum check-up takes place four to six weeks after birth during which the care provider



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