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Surface of Earth

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Many studies in climatologically science areas have researching in global surface energy balance. It is true that there is an increasing interest in understanding between the radiation and energy surface balance of any surfaces. Among the studies, especially, any surfaces such as forest, desert, snow or regional water have been shown different surface properties and different incoming solar energy or energy balance. Indeed, a recent study investigated that surface energy exchanges in tundra area and compared surface energy exchange in arid area. Therefore, these related researches could provide an opportunity to better understand for climatology area. In this essay, there will be attempt to investigate the radiation of different surfaces and energy balance and also describe what kinds of surface properties make them unique and finally suggest relevant factors.

The surface of earth provides the incoming solar radiation as the primary source of energy in surface energy balance (Beringer & Tapper 2000). At the surface, net radiation is partitioned into the turbulent fluxes of heat dominantly and moisture and heat conducted into the soil (Beringer & Tapper 2000). The energy exchange at the surface effects on the local and regional climate. For example, boundary layer effect on the development of native and non-native vegetation (Lyon et al. 1993). In addition, the surface energy exchange influences the water exchange, active atmosphere gases and local climate (Beringer et al. 2005). Soil moisture also affects to control the energy fluxes which include the partitioning of energy between latent and sensible heating and the net radiation absorbed by the surface (Small & Kurc 2001). The land surface have some properties which is set of surface parameters such as background albedo, fraction which is covered by vegetation, leaf area index, roughness, forest fraction and stored soil water capacity (Kleidon, Fraedrich & Helmann 2000). According to the previous research (Claussen et al. 1994), background albedo reduced when the vegetation exists and when snow covers the surface. Soil water storage capacity is related to evaporation. Roughness is increased when the presence of vegetation.



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