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The Role of Blood in Providing Immunity Against Disease

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The Role of Blood in Providing Immunity Against Disease.

Introduction

Blood plays a vital role in the immune system; it has four main mechanisms. White blood cells play a significant role. They produce antibodies and eliminate damaging microorganisms that our bodies do not recognise. Your immune structure is used to fight pathogens and it supports to keep you healthy. From time to time your immune structure can advance lymph and immune system ailments. What occurs is your immune system can develop overcharged or it can turn out to be weak chancing your bodies retort to bacteria and viruses. (UOR Medical Center, 2014).

When the immune system is low, it will start to outbreak and produce antibodies, which consequences in destructive its own tissues. With an immune system that under reacts it is unable to fight things that enter the body, which leads to more infections of microscopic opponents. Pathogens they are microscopic organisms, parasites, growths or infections, they will look for any methods conceivable to fight our bodies' protections, they will enter through injuries, or through the mouth as we swallow.

Once inside our bodies, they do their most extreme to develop and duplicate – with dangerous outcomes. By harming our cells or discharging their toxins, these pathogens cause a large group of diseases, from regular colds and measles to conceivably lethal conditions like tuberculosis and intestinal sickness. The immune system is a system of cells, tissues, and organs that collaborate to protect the body. One of the vital cells included are white blood cells, also called leukocytes they come in two fundamental sorts that combine to search out and destroy disease causing infections or substances. (Indge, B et al. pg. 174 (2000)

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(naturalvigor.com, N/D)

Main body

What is a pathogen?

Viruses in all individuals, plants and other creatures are triggered by micro-organisms called pathogens; these can be micro-organisms such as germs, diseases, fungi, helminths and protozoa (Inglis,1996).

The time pathogen is most frequently used to pronounce a transmittable virus which interrupts the usual physiology of a multi-cellular animal or plant (Wassenaar, 2009). There are many pathogens which have been accountable for immense outbreaks of ailment, an example of this is Yersinia Pestis which was the bacteria responsible for the black plague (Harwood 1979).

A pathogen is a biological specialist that provides sickness or disease in its host. The human body contains numerous distinguishing defences against some of regular pathogens, this is the human immune system. The immune system can destroy pathogens that figure out how to enter the body. Pathogens remain microorganisms that cause illness, they include microorganisms, for example, bacteria, viruses, growths and protozoa. Protozoa are single celled organisms, nutrition that is tainted with protozoa can cause harm. Malaria is an illness caused by protozoa that lives in the blood. It is transferred to an individual by a bug called the mosquito.

Pathogens

A pathogen is a microorganism that can cause disease. Pathogens include bacterium, i.e. Bacterial meningitis virus i.e. hepatitis or fungus i.e. athletes foot [Iaff.org, (2015)] White blood cells can swallow and abolish the pathogen. One of the most joint ways pathogens are spread is through personal contact. The common cold is usually spread through saliva and the HIV virus is spread during intercourse or sharing needles.

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(Science-esl.wikispaces.com, N/D)  (Pictures of Pathogens, 2017)

Phagocytes
Phagocytosis is the ingestion of particles by cells. A phagocyte is a form of cell originate inside the body skilled of submerging and grossing bacteria and extra minor cells / elements. Phagocytes use phagocytosis to clear away the antigen and antibody in an immune response. Two types of phagocytes are Macrophages and Neutrophils. The Neutrophils are found in the blood and Macrophages are found in the tissue. They are both made in the bone marrow.

Phagocytes is the ingestion of particles by cells, this is a kind of cell found inside the body. Phagocytes can quite simply pass through the plasma walls into neighbouring tissue and move near pathogens. They can also consume and absorb or release an enzyme to abolish it. 

This phagosome at that point fuses with a lysosome, which contains acidic compounds and toxic chemicals, forming a phagolysosome. These enzymes and chemicals at that point separate and digest the bacterium, defeating it. After the bacterium has been destroyed, the macrophage ingests any of the material that is helpful and disposes of the rest. (Savina A, Amigorena S. (2007)

T-Cells
T Cells are a form of white blood cells that everything with macrophages. Contrasting macrophages that can outbreak any cells or diseases, individually T cell can fight individual one type of disease. They are a type of white blood cell that mixes round our bodies glance at for irregularities and contaminations. They developed in the thymus gland and keep on in the lymph tissue. They fit into a cluster of white blood cells called lymphocytes. They are extremely specialised cells. [T Cell Modulation Group (2009)] There are several types of T-cells that act in diverse ways to recognize attack and extinguish transmittable agents. [Mallick, I. (2014).] T cells contribute to the immune defenses in two unusual ways: Some direct and regulate immune responses whereas others directly fight of the infected or cancerous cells. [ U.S Department of health and human services (2008).] They respond to antigens on the external of the body cells which has been invaded by pathogens. This acknowledgement be subject to on specific receptors on the surface of the T cell. These are identified as T cell receptors and bind to their precise antigen. The destroyer T cell is in criticizing cells of the body infected by diseases and occasionally also microorganisms. It can also attack cancer cells. [Nobelprize.org, (2014).]

B-Cells
B cells are a type of lymphocyte. They work by concealing elements called antibodies into the bodies liquids. Antibodies bout antigens mixing in the blood stream. Antigens recognize a molecule as existence foreign. The cells are formed and molded in the bone marrow. B cells can recognise masses of miscellaneous antigens. B cells can recognise antigens that have never entered the body before, and even man-made particles that don't exist in body.

Each B -cell is by inheritance automated to develop only one sort of exact receptor on its external membrane. These receptors have similar form as the antibody which will be created by the B-cell. The antibody molecules will mix precisely with antigens. B-cells are incapable to respond to the presence of a substance on their own, they rely on the T- helper T cell. 

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