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Ching Chang Chong

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Brand Recall

Keller (1993) suggests that brand recall is a consumers’ ability to retrieve a brand when given the product category, the needs fulfilled by the category, or some other type of probe as a cue” (Baumann, Hamin, and Chong 2015, 21). In short, brand recall is unaided awareness of a particular brand.

Brand Recognition

Brand recognition is the process of perceiving and identifying a brand as previously encountered (Ou et al. 2011, 194), and relates to consumers' ability to conform prior exposure to the brand when given the brand as a cue (Keller 2003, 595). Brand recognition refers to the percentage of people stating that they have heard of that specific brand (Francois and MacLachlan 1995, 321) and requires that consumers correctly discriminate the brand as having been seen or heard of previously (Aaker 1996, 212)

Resonance Strategy

Resonance is referred to the nature of the customer-brand relationship, and to the extent which customers feel that they are totally "synchronized" with the brand (Keller 2010, 58). Using the resonance strategy correctly, customers can identify the salience of a brand, perceive its superior level of quality, and lastly show a high degree of loyalty to the brand (Hye et al. 2014, 187).


People will be able to relate better to Centrum with this strategy, as it employs emotions, lifestyles or situations similar to the targeted consumer. Centrum uses 2 middle-aged Singaporean citizens and creates an image that people can look young and stay healthy despite being in their 50s. People who are in their 50s and are interested in looking young and healthy are likely to be more attracted to this advertisement, thus having a high brand recall and recognition. This strategy also brings about a more emotional approach as compared to a more cognitive informational strategy; which contains a lot of words and information about a certain product. Studies have shown that emotion-based ads are better remembered than are non-emotional messages (Belch and Belch 2013, 395) According to the limited capacity model (Lang 2000, 46) and the cognitive load theory people have a limited cognitive capacity and cannot process more than a limited amount of information in a short amount of time (Lin, Lee and Robertson 2011, 183). Therefore, the resonance strategy has an edge over a more cognitive strategy in terms of brand recall and recognition


The targeted consumers’ lifestyle or image might not be aligned with Centrum’s advertisement. Centrum uses a Singaporean Chinese male and a female, and if the targeted consumer does not fit to the lifestyle that Centrum portrays, the consumer might adopt a low brand recall. Advertisements are only able to evoke emotions when viewers are involved in the advertisement’s plot or take the advertisement personally. This type of engagement can lead to viewers’ becoming personally involved in the ad, which many theorists of emotion believe to be necessary for emotional responses to occur (Escalas, Moore, and Britton 2004, 105). Thus, only when an ad hooks an individual, upbeat or warm feelings can be evoked and then cause an individual to remember a brand.

Centrum uses 2 non-celebrity endorsers to advertise their product, this would not be as effective in terms of brand recall and recognition. People would be more likely to remember if they see someone they are more familiar with. Also, people are more likely to follow the footsteps of an idol than a person they have not heard of. Using a non-celebrity endorser for Centrum would definitely produce a lower brand recall as compared to using a celebrity endorser. Celebrities create attention and bring prestige to brands, and may encourage higher recall (Erdogan, 1999, 291). Research found that celebrities are more effective than non-celebrities at generating higher brand recognition and increases purchase intent (Daneshvary and Schwer 2000, 203).

Unique Selling Proposition (USP)


The USP approach seeks to emphasize unique product attributes in a manner that is understandable, approachable, and accessible to potential buyers (Miller and Henthorne 2007, 49). Effective USP advertising has been proven to increase product memorability (Bao, Shao, and Rivers 2008, 148). Limited research suggests that marketing campaigns employing the USP concept are more effective in terms of both remaining in the customer’s memory and ultimately selling the product (Bao, Shao, and Rivers 2008, 148), thus resulting in a high brand recall.

Furthermore, Unique Selling Proposition (USP) also makes a claim of brand uniqueness or superiority that can be substantiated (Laskley, Fox, and Crask 1995, 31), thus when used correctly and effectively, it can help a brand stand out amongst its competitors and gain a higher market share.


McCarthy et al. (2001, 75) found that brand recall can be strongly reduced when respondents were given information on the new extension products. Therefore, the informational appeals will strongly reduce the impact of perceived quality and fit on extension evaluation, as compared to emotional appeals (Dens and De Pelsmacker 2010, 1237).



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