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Education 60 - Final Exam Study Guide

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Education 60 – Final Exam Study Guide

Chapter 1

-Topics

-The History and Political Goals of Public Schooling

-Education Goals are Controversial

-Historical Goals are Schooling

-Common Core State Standards: Protected or Prepared Childhood?

-Impact of Educational Goals: Common Core Standards and Literacy

-Political Goals of Schooling

-Should Schools Teach Political Values and Patriotism?

-Censorship and American Political Values?

-Courts and Political Values

-The Fruits of Political Educations

-Themes

-Horace Mann believed in a common school model.

-Horace man believed investing in education would lead to a better society.

-Concepts

        -Common Core standards

        -Censorship: Court cases

                -Board of Island Union Free School District v. Steven A. Pico: (removing books                          from school)

                -Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District: (speech rights for students)

                -Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlemier: (censorship of school publications)

                -West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette: (freedom of religion)

-Figures

        -Goals of Public Schools in the U.S., 1820 to 2003 (pg 5)

-Statistical info

        -Table 1.1: School Enrollment and Average Days of Attendance, 1868–2004 (pg 24)

        -Table 1.2: Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections: Select Years, 1824–2004 (pg 24)

-Table 1.3: Average Total Civic Knowledge Achievement of Ninth-Grade Students by Nation, 1999         (pg 25)

The History and Political Goals of Public Schooling

-According to Horace Mann there is a correlation to education and political values

-Pg 6: goals of public school in the US 1820-2003

-Historical Goals

-Schools are the focus of many hopes for political, social, and economic improvement

-Providing equality of opportunity to pursue wealth remains a school dream

-Education Goals are Controversial: Censorship and American Political Values

-Censorship pg 17

-pg 25  table 1.1 average day of attendance

-Educational Goals

-Educational are a product of what people believe schooling should do for the good of society

-It reflects opinions and beliefs about how people should act and how society should be organized

-Pledging allegiance to the flag

-Historical Goals of Schooling

-Political values and patriotism pg 11-24

-Court Case about history of education pg 23,23, 24,24,

-Horace Mann, said that schools could be used as a tool to reduce crime, and he also proposed to teach moral values that were common to christian denomination

-Was for teaching Facts, concepts, skills, and morals

-Was against teaching controversial topics in schools

-Father of public schools

-Wanted to install a common political creed in all students and an obligation and desire to vote as part of maintaining a republican form of government

-According to Mann, it is necessary to teach the importance of using the vote, as opposed to revolution and violence to bring political change

-He urged for following the laws and decreasing crimes was the best way for change

-Common Core State Standards: Protected or Prepared Childhood?

  • Common Core:  standard to prepare students for work or college to and  teach morals, concepts, and facts
  • An example of the political determination of educational goals
  • Determines what is taught in K-12 classes
  • Prepares you for college
  • Decided what textbooks you read and what books you can and can't read
  • More info on Common Core: Pg 7-10
  • David Coleman, an architect of the common core standards and president of the college board pg 10
  • Impact of Educational Goals: Common Core Standards and Literacy
  • Political Goals of Schooling
  • Teaches a common set of political beliefs
  • Learning to obey the law by obeying school rules
  • Providing an equal opportunity for all to be elected to political positions
  • Educating patriotic systems
  • Educating students to be involved
  • Educating students to be involved in community activities
  • A large percentage of school graduates do not vote despite this being a central creed of civic instruction. Many students seem to leave school with a concept of citizenship focused on obedience to the law and authority in contrast to community activism.
  • Page 26: Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections: Select Years, 1824-2004
  • Page 28. Average Total Civic Knowledge Achievement of Ninth-Grade Students by Nation, 1999
  • United states citizens are taught to not participate in political activities
  • Should Schools Teach Political Values and Patriotism?
  • Court Cases
  • Different kinds of court cases that debate what political values should be debated in school
  • Page 21. Board of Island Union Free School District v. Steven A. Pico
  • Page 23. Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District
  • Page 24. Courts have the ability to determine what is vulgar and inappropriate in a classroom
  • Page 24. Whether you should salute the flag for the pledge of allegiance

Chapter 2

  • Topics: The Social Goals of Schooling
  • The Problem of Determining Moral Values: Religion and Secularism
  • Moral Values and Sex Education
  • School Values: LGBTQ
  • Character Education
  • Do Public Schools Reduce Crime?
  • School Crime: Student Violence?
  • School Crime: Bullying and Cyberbullying
  • Promoting National Health: Nutrition
  • Promoting National Health: Drug And Alcohol Abuse
  • Building Community Through Extracurricular Activities
  • Themes:
  • Character education
  • National health and safety
  • School crime
  • Community building
  • Concepts:
  • The Problem of Determining Moral Values: Religion and Secularism
  • Horace Mann proposed teaching moral values common to Christian denominations
  • A variety of religious groups disagreed with his ideas, so the Catholic Church created its own system of schools
  • The Catholic Church believed that it was impossible for a public school to reflect the views of all Christian groups
  • Mann’s hope of eliminating crime through moral instruction in public schools got support in the late nineteenth century
  • In 1890, sociologist Edward Ross refereed to education as the key for social control
  • Social control how a society maintained order and controlled crime and rebellion. Ross divided social control into external and internal.
  • -External social control - police and military regulating social behavior
  • Internal social control - people controlling their own behaviors according to moral values
  • Ross argued that families, churches, and communities taught children moral values and social responsibility
  • Ross advocated teaching secular values that would not be associated with religion.
  • Until 1960s, everyone thought that moral values should be taught on Christian values. Things changed when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that prayers and Bible readings were unconstitutional.
  • RELATIVELY RECENT : Sarah Palin believed that school instruction should have religious values during the conservative movement
  • ENGEL V. VITALE ( 1962 )- denied the right of a public school system to conduct prayers services within school buildings during regular school hours.
  • the story behind: New York Board of Regents allowed a local school system the right to have prayer before the beginning of each class. Students were not compelled to participate if they rejected to
  • court overturned their decision, and one major objection of the U.S. Supreme court was that a government official had written the prayer, which made the government -DIRECTLY IN THE BUSINESS OF ESTABLISHING RELIGION
  • The school prayer may not have violated any rights because it did not force students to recite the prayer, but the fact that the prayer existed in schools involved the establishment of religion in public schools
  • (1963) Abington School District v. Schempp- Pennsylvania law permitted the reading of ten verses at the opening of each public school day. Again, the court made the same decision as they did in Engel v. Vitale for the very same reason, establishment of religion
  • constitutionally protected prayer - rights for students to form religious clubs on campus where they can pray and read religious texts
  • Moral Values and Sex Education
  • Sex edu for kindergarteners: consists of proper terms for body parts and reproductive system
  • Curriculum based on Religion or secular morals?
  • National Edu Association’s Committee on Character Edu- combat decline of regulating sexual impulses “ for the good of society”
  • Students warned sexual intercource before marriage bc it’d be a threat to the stability of the family
  • High School sex edu books focused on “promiscuous petting” - would affect a girl’s value in the dating world
  • Prom = poor people’s version of debutante ball
  • 1940’s- “teenagers” heightened concerns about adolescent sexuality
  • The Sex Respect Program (2014) - say no to premarital sex: in the best interest of society. Funded by Title V
  • Programs like Sex Respect were made possible by Title V of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 in which Congress authorized federal funds to be provided to the states in the form of block grants to promote chastity until marriage
  • Title V requirements for funding bottom of page 40- top of 41.
  • No Child Left Behind Act: reflect religious, conservative values, against $$ from legislation to promote birth control/homosexuality (bottom of pg 41)
    -2014 future of sex edu standards page 42: Graph of pregnancy rate
  • School Values: LGBTQ
  • -2009 ~ NYC- based gay lesbian and straight edu network 6,209 students reported 91% middle school respondents said experienced verbal harassment @ school bc of sexual orientation and 39% said were physically assaulted
  • Report called for anti-bullying policies in regards to this
  • Much disagreement when in 1992 NYC attempted to adopt the “Children of the Rainbow curriculum (required kids to be taught tolerance towards gays and lesbians)
  • 2010 Itawamba County, Mississippi school district canceled its prom b/c lesbian student asked to attend w/ girlfriend in a tux
  • Reasoning for cancellation: “Due to the distractions to the educational process caused by recent events.”
  • Student sued the district for violating her constitutional right, won and got district to adopt policy to “not to discriminate based on sexual orientation and gender identity in any education or extracurricular activities”
  • Character Education
  • No Child Left Behind section “Partnerships in Character Education”
  • Uses the word “secular character education” which examples of that are Caring, Civic virtue and citizenship, Justice and fairness, Respect, Responsibility, Trustworthiness, Giving
  • These values are vague in the wording of the legislation
  • Thus, different people interpret them different depending on their religion, political views,
  • Do Public Schools Reduce Crime?
  • No causal relationship between school attendance and reduction in crime rates
  • Table 2.2 (48) : As number of 5-17 year olds in school between 1960 and 2004 increased so did the crime rate
  • Constant fluctuation of crime rates regardless of
    school attendance by students
  • Higher a person’s educational attainment the less likely they are to be in prison
  • Table 2.3 (49): 41% of prison inmates have some high school education compared to 12% that have postsecondary education
  • Educational attainment and likelihood of prison hard to determine as several other social factors impact likelihood of prison
  • School Crime: Student Violence?
  • School Crime: Student Violence
  • Despite horrific incidents of school massacres: U.S. Department of Education’s The Condition of Education 2014 reported general decline in violence against students
  • School Crime Incidents resulted in:
  • Lockdown procedures
  • Zero tolerance policy towards drugs, weapons, alcohol
  • School Crime: Bullying and Cyberbullying
  • Fight Crime: Invest in Kids = anti bullying org.
  • 10% of teens bullies
  • Preteens just as likely to be targeted as teens
  • Promoting National Health: Nutrition
  • For the home:
  • Home economics classes were developed to teach girls how to be good housekeepers.
  • The emphasis was on learning cooking, budgeting, sewing, and methods of cleaning in order to improve the overall quality of the home
  • Meals in the school:
  • School cafeterias were created to provide an Americanized cuisine of healthy, inexpensive, and bland food.
  • Diet concerns:
  • The Obesity Prevention and Treatment Act was created to address the problem of child and adult obesity
  • Promoting National Health: Drug And Alcohol Abuse
  • Drug and Alcohol Abuse -D.A.R.E.
  • Anti-drug program was created to reduce drug use of students
  • Was shown to not have any effect on reducing drug use of those in the program
  • Building Community Through Extracurricular Activities
  • The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
  • Report that suggested the use of high schools to promote socialization of youths through extra-curricular activities
  • Students were supposed to gain a sense of school spirit and then
    community spirit through these activities
  • Extra-Curricular programs have been declining in high schools in recent years due to budget cuts
  • Models:
  • Table 2.1 - Pregnancy Rate of Women Aged 15 to 19 per 1,000 Women Aged 15 to 19 (pg. 43)
  • Table 2.2 - U.S. Crime Rate Index per 100,000 Inhabitants, 1960 - 2012
  • Table 2.3 - Educational Attainment for Correctional Populations and the General Population
  • *Figures and Statistics are in Concepts section

Topics

● The Social Goals of Schooling

● The Problem of Determining Moral Values: Religion and Secularism

● Moral Values and Sex Education

● School Values: LGBTQ (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Sexual

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