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Hca 240 - Human Diseases and Public Awareness

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Breast Cancer

Human Diseases and Public Awareness

Axia College of University of Phoenix

HCA 240

March 27, 2011

Introducing Breast Cancer:

Breast Cancer and the journey through history has been recorded as early as in the ancient Greek and Roman era, one particular case was by Hippocrate of a woman named Abdera; who experienced a bloody discharge from her nipple. This was recorded as carcinoma of the breast (Donegan, 2005). Hippocrate recorded vast theories on the subject of breast cancer, it was suggested that the link between menstruations ending in woman (like menopause) was one indicator of the female body being compromised In researching the disease he listed the symptoms in a significant pattern first indicating tumors developing in the tissue of the breast, which with time became solid masses causing the body to have a domino effect of declining health until death occurred (Donegan, 2005). The Roman physicians according to Donegan, 2005 believed there to be four levels of the disease. A physician named Celcus documented cases of breast cancer; the treatment he prescribed was to remove the tumor in the beginning phase of cancer.

The statistics pertaining to Breast Cancer:

In a world where so many are seeking the answers to maintain good health through lifestyle changes, it is shocking to find that an estimated 207,090 new cases of invasive breast cancer has occurred in the United States. New cases of carcinoma in stiu (CIS) will affect numbers as high as 54,010 in individuals; CIS is a non-invasive cancer and described as the earliest form of breast cancer. The numbers of deaths pertaining to breast cancer has been estimated to be as many as 39,840 women. Breast cancer is the most communal and common cancer amongst the female population. Although; various other forms of cancer equal in its ravaging of a healthy body, the leading killer of cancer is lung cancer. The facts of breast cancer reveal that the majority of people stricken are females, and has been estimated to affect a small male population as well. One out of eight females have a chance of acquiring breast cancer within their lifetime. The possibility of death is guesstimated to be one in 35 these statistics are decreasing as technology, and early detection has infiltrated the medical field and its ability to educate the public. (American Cancer Society, 2011). The risks, the breast, the family:

The description of breast cancer, according to the American Cancer Society, 2010 is a malignant tumor, which develops from a cell located in the breast. The breast is constructed of three key components they are identified as glands, ducts, and connective tissue. Each of these components has a purpose, the glands in the breast create milk, and the ducts are supporting the gland by transporting the milk to the nipples. The third component is the connective tissue; its purpose is to function as a form of glue, the breast consist of and fatty tissue and it meshes together holding the breast in place. Age, female gender, race, , DNA, and radiation tests that may have been done previously causing tissue and cell damage all are factors that cannot be changed in reducing the risks (WebMD, 2005-2010). Understanding the fundamentals of genetics and how the family history can help in bringing forth awareness of diseases that can be transferred through blood ties is a component that can help in saving one's life. If ovarian cancer or breast cancer has played a factor in the genetic gene pool it increases the risk of breast cancer for family members.

Another contributor of breast cancer that has been hypothesized is obesity. If, weight has been an issue since puberty, it has set precedence for breast cancer to occur in some women according to the Mayo Clinic, 2008. The theory, that if a girl begins menstruation at a young age, or a woman is menopausal, and has been placed on hormones for over four years, if a woman has taken birth in control pills for a lengthy time, the risk of breast cancer has been initiated. In addition, the risk of contracting breast cancer is applied to women ranging 30 years and older, who become pregnant.

The statistics indicate Caucasian women are at an increased risk for breast cancer; however, the mortality rate of African American females is much higher, the data suggest that the cause may be related to him or her receiving a diagnosis in the fatal stages. The reality is that the socioeconomic components cannot be underestimated in the role that it plays in the ability for low-income and indigence members of society to ascertain health care, let alone be able to find modes of transportation to seek medical care for their illness (Mayo Clinic, 2008). The concept of hereditary issues are difficult to overcome in being at risk for breast cancer; however, for those people who have no hereditary connections the ability to make lifestyle changes to decrease the risk factors is obtainable. Changing one's lifestyle, such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, develops a healthy nutritional intake, each positive elements in preventive measures. Breastfeeding according to the American Cancer Society, 2008 data suggests that breast feeding for an extended amount of time can help in reducing the risk of breast cancer. The need for education and free breast screening for poverty or low income members of society is essential in identifying breast cancer in its early stages.

The Research of Breast cancer:

Every day a woman is subjected to the words "You have breast cancer," or discover a lump during a shower, or self-examination, in some cases it has been said that it was discovered by a partner, the lifelong question has never changed "why" has this happened to me ? Research continues daily in the science labs, information at 5% to 10% of breast cancer stems from genetic defects that encompass one or two genetic components, which incorporate the BRCA 1, and BRCA 2. Further data exposes Kinase 2 the cell cycle checkpoint gene, an even more genetic mutated gene is known as Ataxiatelangiectasia, and the suppressor gene p53. If an individual's family member possesses one of these components, the data suggests that the individual has more than half the risk of encumbering the mutative gene in his or her DNA. The probability of contracting breast cancer is substantially high according to the Mayo Clinic, 2008. Further investigation of the data suggests that although these genetic factors exist it is not



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