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How Have African-Americans Worked to End Segregation, Discrimination, and Isolation to Attain

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How have African-Americans worked to end segregation, discrimination, and isolation to attain equality and civil rights?

Situation of African-Americans Pre-Civil War Times

The African American population in the north of America during 1860's was 1 percent post American Revolution. Since the start, they faced discrimination on the basis of their skin color. They were thought of as being inferior in comparison to the whites. Due to discrimination, they're not given the right to vote. The unfair premise that was given upon questioning the state was that it is forbidden by the laws of the area. Back in 1821, a law was passed by the New York Convention stating that the African Americans will only have the right to vote if they owned a property. However, in those days African Americans were struggling to get jobs and were financially unstable. The jobs they use to get were menial in nature. Jobs that demanded little or no skill and they were low income oriented. The jobs, which had an, appropriate pay and essential skills were not given to African Americans. If they tried applying, they were rejected instantly. Upon questioning the authority, the applicants used to be beaten up brutally.

Nearly 95 percent of the African Americans during 1800's were hired for menial jobs. The jobs that they desired were not given to them, and the jobs that African Americans did were not desired by the whites. Another reason besides African Americans being inferior was that the whites thought of them as being unintelligent and highly incapable. Hence, they were given such jobs.

The discrimination did not end on jobs. Discrimination and stereotyping went beyond the threshold. The legislators tried every possible way to separate the African Americans from the whites by creating laws. Laws were created to ensure that there is a constant division between the two races. The laws led to higher racial differences. The discrimination did not leave the innocent children, and they were dragged into the vicious circle of racial discrimination. Laws were passed to segregate the schools of African Americans from the whites. A long term approach was behind it. The premise behind it was that if both the caste's mingle in schools then there is a high probability of inter marriages. The thought of such instance was unbearable to them (Collier, 2004).

The segregation extended to public transport, as well. The trains were segregated to the extent that the African Americans were seated at one side of the train while the whites were on the other. There were restrictions relating to African Americans not being allowed to occupy where the whites socialized or resided. They were not allowed to own or rent a property as it would depreciate the value of the property. It was a worrisome situation and a derogatory perception where the presence of African American could lead to unfortunate luck.

African Americans residing in the south could not escape the vicious cycle of racial discrimination either. Their condition was even worse. They were forced to work without being expected to be paid. At sunrise, African Americans start to work and used to work till sunset. They did not have the right to take off either. They were regarded as properties that had no rights to do anything without asking permission. If somebody tried to facilitate them in working out of empathy, the helper was charged with theft.

Unlike the north, African Americans in the South did not have the right to vote. The African Americans were in a vast majority of 40 percent and had every right to vote. African Americans in the South were at a disadvantage than those in the North as they were not even allowed to educate themselves. A law was passed against the education of African Americans. Many whites had the perception that the workers would escape for a better opportunity if they are allowed to get an education (Bennett, 2003).

African Americans as slaves have to loan themselves out. They would pay their owner an amount set by the owner so that they could work for other employers and earn an extra amount. They were also allowed to live on their own, as well as pay board. Despite the leverage, they had at times still nothing compared of freedom or rights like the whites did.

Back in the 1800's, the African Americans were in a dangerous situation. Although African Americans in the North had more rights than the South, but the genuine essence of freedom was absent (www.digitalhistory.uh.edu).

Towards the Civil War

Abraham Lincoln became the President of the USA, in the year of 1860. Lincoln was known as anti-slavery oriented, something he later disproved by saying: "If I could save the Union by freeing all the slaves I would do, if I could save the Union by freeing any slave, would I do, if I could save the Union by freeing some slaves and others, I would do. " (1862).

Already in 1861 the American Civil War inevitable, however much he wanted to prove that Lincoln also the unity of the Union set up the freedom of the slaves. In February of that year had been released seven states of the Union, which would soon be more.

After the inauguration of Lincoln on March 4, 1861, tensions started rising. States like Virginia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Missouri, Arkansas and North Carolina have deliberated about what to do. The Southern sentiments in the States were dangerously prominent, and Lincoln feared that they would separate for inclusion in the new Confederate States of America (CSA).

This fear was largely true after the bombing of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, the day the Civil War began.

After Lincoln had proclaimed a state of rebellion, drew Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee and Arkansas are also angry from the Union. End in May 1861 consisted of eleven

Situation of African Americans Post Civil War Times

On January 31, 1865, the U.S. Senate took the thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution, in which slavery throughout the United States was officially abolished. The next day, the Supreme Court, a lawyer from Massachusetts, John Rock, but to higher acceptance by Salmon P. Chase, the successor of Roger Taney. Taney did in 1857 in the Dred Scott case said that blacks had no civil rights and this right could never acquire, John Rock was a lawyer, doctor and dentist, spoke German and French - and he was black.

In March there was a once proud Army of Northern Virginia Lee, now commander of the Confederate army was the remains of, from only 35,000 men, fighting a northern supremacy of 115,000 men. The situation was hopeless, and ordered Lee from Petersburg to the West to withdraw.

In addition, Lee asked for something that went



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