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Irish Tourism

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1. In the context of the increasingly competitive and changing international tourism marketplace and the challenges facing Irish Tourism critically evaluate the analysis and the proposed solutions of the Tourism Policy Review Group Report-New Horizons For Irish Tourism-An Agenda for Action.

2. In the context of international developments discuss the performance of Irish tourism since the mid-1980s. Outline the key policy issues identified in the Tourism Policy Review Group's Report - New Horizons For Irish Tourism-An Agenda for Action.

3. In the context of the changing nature of international tourism trends and policy, critically evaluate the policies currently being put forward to strategically plan for the future of Irish tourism.

4. Critically evaluate the factors that led to the significant development of Irish tourism in the years after 1985. Outline the factors that curtailed the growth from the year 2000 and comment on the analysis and the prescriptions that have been put forward for future tourism development in Ireland.


Tourism 1

Definition 2

History 2

Mass Tourism to New Tourism 2

Tourism is being reinvented: 3

Performance in Tourism on a global level 3

The importance of tourism in a global context 4

Negative impacts? 4

Importance of tourism for Ireland 4

Irish tourism performance 4

Factors determining the post 1985 tourism boom 5

Present performance (Endogenous Competitiveness Issues): 6

Tourism Policy Review Group: 7

New Horizons for Irish Tourism: 8

Fundamental guiding principles: 9

Current government role is supporting (ITIC) 9

Future elements for success 9

Core emerging issues 9

Overcoming the decline in competitiveness 11

And so... 11


"Tourism is the temporary, short term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work, and includes activities during their stay at these destinations; it also includes movement for all purposes, as well day visits and excursions" (Tourism Society, 1982) A point to note is that contrary to common belief, tourism isn't just people going on holiday, the definition also include business people who may have not come to the area for leisure purposes.


Due to advances in technology, travel is a lot easier today and there are many low cost options available. This was not always the case. Until the 20th century travel was a big ordeal and would not be undertaken lightly. Through the years there have been various reasons for travel including: trade and bartering; pilgrimages; and broadening knowledge. The first package holidays were offered by Cook in the 1860s.

Mass Tourism to New Tourism

The major turnaround began after the war in the 1960s. This period heralded the beginning of mass tourism. Mass tourism was typified by standardised, low cost, rigid packages coupled with customers' low expectations. It was to profit from consumers' new found prosperity after the dirges of the war. People had more money available to them and were willing to spend it on travelling. People would go to their destination and a lot of the time rent out a car due to the price of cars and petrol being a lot lower that those prices today. Mass tourism was the story for the 1960s and the 1970s but come the 1980s there was a move to 'new tourism'. New tourism was epitomised by more flexibility, innovative pricing and consumers who were looking for more a unique experience than their mass tourism counterparts.

New Age Tourism previously focused on demand side policy (Keynes) but currently has had to change to focus on supply side competitive framework (Porter). Other factors influencing decisions include: chance e.g. the tsunami in Indonesia or the recent massacre in India and government intervention to correct market failures.

Mass Tourist New Age Tourists

Inexperienced Mature

Predictable Spontaneous

Get sunburnt Keep clothes on

Escape from day to day life Extension of life

Tourism is being reinvented Flexibility is the new goal. Be this flexibility of types of production, communication, consumption or distribution. Low cost is less of a main purpose. Quality is more highly regarded than cost.

Performance in Tourism on a global level

City breaks lead to a fall in expenditure because of the short length of time. The areas really need tourists to stay as long as possible. In the next 10 years the projections are that the European market will lose competitiveness. Saying this though, there will be regional growth within Europe i.e. although European competitiveness is waning, some areas are doing well e.g. Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean and central Europe.

An interesting point to note is the importance of the population demographic. The "greying population" will need a different focus from that of the younger generations. The likes of Saga holidays will become much more popular in the future.

The importance of tourism in a global context

* Export earnings: for countries (US $1 trillion in 2007). Tourism ranks fourth globally after fuels, chemicals and automotive products (WTO, 2008).

* Employment: estimated at 100 million internationally. Tourism job creation is growing one and a half times more than any industrial sector.

* Tax revenues: accommodation taxes, sales taxes, entrance fees, employee income taxes and airport taxes to name but a few.

* Infrastructure investment: this helps to improve living conditions of locals

* Rural opportunities: in underdeveloped



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