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Oak Ridges Moraine - Environmental Issues

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There are many environmental issues that can be solved through planning. However, some environmental problems have been caused by a lack of planning. One of the most disastrous environmental issues is urban sprawl. Urban sprawl is caused from urban and suburban unplanned growth, the change from a grassland to a city. Urban sprawl doesn't only harm humans from the pollution caused by the construction but also causes change in biodiversity, and fragmentation.[2] Thus also leads to reducing the size on our carrying capacity for natural organisms. An example of the impact of urban sprawl is more than a million seabirds die a year from all the pollution caused. Urban sprawl also changes the abiotic and biotic features.[1] Urban sprawl affects everywhere. Sadly, but true urban sprawl is happening in Canada, like the Oak Ridges Moraine, but not only Canada but all over the world. The Oak Ridges Moraine is one of the continuous green corridors that contains of 30% forest and one of the last refugees for forest birds.[5] This preserved area includes, a big biodiversity of 1171 different species of plants, 125 species of moss, 166 species of breeding birds, 52 different mammal species, 75 species of fishes, 84 species of butterflies, 70 different species of dragonflies, and 30 different species of amphibians.[8] Because the population of Canada is growing faster every day, people want to build on this preserved area. Construction is not the only problem. Bottled water companies are staring to go deeper into the Oak Ridges Moraines waterground to get clean water.[3] In addition, the construction in areas surrounding the Oak Ridges Moraine is causing the pollution to enter into this area, causing harm to our water, and animals. Urban sprawl is also harmful to our earth because tons of rainforest are being cut down which is home to many different creatures. Also while the process of urban sprawl; sulfur dioxide and nitrons oxides combust and cause acid rain which damages our forest and plants.[7]

Oak Ridges Moraine hold is 160km wide and holds 65 river systems; including 35 in the GTA.[6][8] Groundwater from

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the Oak Ridges Moraine provides 40% of the water in Ontarios rivers, and streams.[6] The Oak Ridges Moraine watershed provides drinking water to over 250 000 people alone. Bottled water companies are going deeper into the Oak Ridges Moraine to find cleaner water. How we use the Moraines surface and water can affect the deep region groundwater flow systems; which is integral the health of our ecosystem.[3] If our water supply is contaminated, fisheries, wildlife, and conservation will be affected. Urban Sprawl creates pollution; every year 1900 people die prematurely because of pollution that is caused in Canada.[6]

Society is affected by this, economically, socially, environmentally. Economical effects include higher,



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