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Reinforcing Steel Bars

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rrrrgfr grrrrrrt rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrtgtttttttttttty ythg ghngn Social stigma is a severe social disapproval of or personal discontent with a person on the grounds of their unique characteristics distinguishing them from others in society. Almost all stigma is based on a person differing from social or cultural norms. Erving Goffman defined stigma as 'the process by which the reaction of others spoils normal identity'.[1]

The three forms of stigma recognised by Goffman include: The experience of a mental illness (or the imposition of such a diagnosis); a physical form of deformity or an undesired differentness; or an association with a particular race, religion, belief, etc. (Goffman, 1990).[2]

Mental illness, physical disabilities and diseases such as leprosy (or herpes), about which leprosy stigma may also be called,[3] as well as illegitimacy, sexual orientation, skin tone or affiliation with a specific nationality, religion (or lack of religion[4][5]) or being deemed to be or proclaiming oneself to be of a certain ethnicity, in any of myriad geopolitical and corresponding sociopolitical contexts in various parts of the world. The perception or attribution, rightly or wrongly, of criminality carries a strong social stigma.

Stigma comes in three forms:[6] Firstly, overt or external deformations, such as scars, physical manifestations of anorexia nervosa, leprosy (leprosy stigma), or of a physical disability or social disability, such as obesity. Secondly, deviations in personal traits, including mental illness, drug addiction, alcoholism, and criminal backgrounds are stigmatized in this way. Thirdly, "tribal stigmas" are traits, imagined or real, of ethnic groups, nationalities, or religions that are deemed to constitute a deviation from what is perceived to be the prevailing normative ethnicity, nationality or religion.

Empirical research of stigma associated with mental disorders pointed to a surprising attitude of the general public. Those who were told that mental disorders had a genetic basis were more prone to increase their social distance from the mentally ill, and also assume that the ill were dangerous individuals in contrast with those members of the general public who were told that the illnesses could be explained by social and environment factors. Furthermore, those informed of the genetic basis are also more likely to stigmatize the entire family of the ill.[7] Although the specific social categories that become stigmatized can vary across times and places, the three basic forms of stigma (physical deformity, poor personal traits, and tribal outgroup status) are found in most cultures and time periods, leading some researchers to hypothesize that the tendency to stigmatize may have evolutionary roots.[8][9]



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