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Review of Systems

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Chapter 58


1.Pharmacokinetics: Oral administration begins to work in 10 to 30 minutes. Absorption is good. The drug reaches a peak of action in 60 to 90 minutes and last for 4 to 8 hours.

2. Actions of the medication: Glycerin is used to reduce the Intraocular pressure (IOP) by creating an osmotic gradient in between the plasma and ocular fields.

3. Use: Temporarily reduces IOP in acute attacks of glaucoma. It is also prescribed for reduction of IOP prior to surgery.

4. Adverse effects: Decreased fluid volume. The most serious of these conditions is hyperosmolar nonketotic coma. Other adverse affects are confusion, syncope, cardiac dysrhythmias, nausea, vomiting and sever dehydration.

5. Contraindications: Severe dehydration, abdominal pain, appendicitis, pulmonary edema, and severe cardiac decompensation.

6. Nursing Implications: Important to check the therapeutic effects indicated by a reduction in IOP. The nurse should check the fluid and electrolytes and asses for signs and symptoms of dehydration. Also the nurse should monitor the blood pressure, pulse, and respirations. The nurse should asses for hyperglycemia, adventitious, breath sounds, and papillary reflexes. It is also necessary to asses for hypersensitivity to glycerin.

7. Personal thoughts about this drug or herb: What I found interesting about this drug is the certain adverse effects that could possibly happen from taking this glaucoma medication, it could cause nausea, pain, and confusion, vomiting just to name a few. It amazing how taking a eye medication could cause systemic effects.

Chapter 59

Drug: Ciproflaxacin

1.pharmacokinetics: The intravenous preparation has an onset of action in 10 minutes with a peak of action in 30 minutes and durations of 4 to 5 hours. Onset action for oral preparation varies with a peak od action 60 to 90 minutes and the same duration action. The intravenous and oral preparations are absorbed rapidly and distributed to the kidneys, gallbladder, liver, lungs, gynecological or prostate tissue, and cerebrospinal fluid. It is 20 to 40% protein bound, and partain metabolism take place in the liver . Ther serum half life is 3 to 5 hours with normal renal function. The excretion of the drugs occurs in the urine and feces.

2. actions of the medication: Ciproflxacin inhibits DNA gyrase in susceptible organisms and inhibits the supercoiled DNA, promoting breakage of the double stranded DNA

3. use: For the treatment of P. aeruginosa in patients with nectotizing otitis externa.

4. Adverse effects: The most frequent adverse effects are gastrointestinal and include nausea, vomiting and abdominal discomfort. Dizziness and mild headache may occur. There are reports of allergic and skin reactions. Photosensitivity can occur while taking ciproflexin with exposure to direct or indirect sunlight. Artificial light or sun lamps may also precipitate photosensitivity reactions. Patients older than 60 years of age are at risk for tendonitis or tendon rupture.

5. Contraindications: Patients with a know sensitivity to ciproflexin should not receive the drug or any other fluoroquinole. Administration of ciprofloxacin with tizanidine is contraindicated.

6. Nursing Implications: Many medications, herbs, and foods interact with ciprofloxicain, increasing or decreasing its effects.

7. personal thoughts about this drug or herb: It is very interesting how certain food and herbs could affect the effects the ciproflaxcin has on the body.

Chapter 60


1.pharmacokinetics: Isotretinoin dissolves slowly in the gastrointestinal tract, and the drug is then absorbed rapidly. It crosses the placenta. Isotretionin is metabolized in the liver and exerted in equal amounts in the feces are urine.




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