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Terror Case - Sir Robert Peel - Metropolitan Police Act

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Policing and terror where do the police fit in? I feel to get a clear understanding on policing in America and the fight on terrorism we must all understand the police culture, and their duties. The history of policing origins date back to modern policing (metropolitan police) based out of London in 1829.

The metro police introduced by Sir Robert Peel. Sir Peel developed the metropolitan police act along with a set of principles for policing. This model was to become a way of life for police agencies all over the nation. This model is still very relevant in today's society. The model based on an organizational structure, managerial philosophy, morals, and quality characteristics of an ideal officer.

The main characteristic of a police officer should be but not limited to:

* Posses the ability to work under a centralized command structure.

* A rigid superior with a subordinate relationship.

* Communication abilities at a vertical level of understanding.

* Initiative being neither soft nor encourages

* Discipline being rile based and punitive

* Discretion ability at a high level of intensity.

* One who can deal with a stressful life style both work related and personal.

* Someone who is Un-Bios.

* An Individual who can work in the community without direct supervision on a daily basis.

All being characteristic from Sir Robert Peel's 1803 research. Stating with this modern model of characteristics any officer can be successful in the field. According to (Arturo, 1981), (R.Riener, 1994), and (Reith, 1975). Going on to say that this style of policing should also be accompanied with a higher up in management being from military decent. In other words possessing the literal definition of Para militarism. Making sure not only the police officer but the superior should be stable, efficient, and organized individuals. In hopes of being along the lines of military personal. The superior himself should be one from the military, military trained, as well as military moral training. Community police officers should be able to problem solve under pressure, and work closely with the community in effort to crack down on crime. With the traditional policing style it allows law enforcement to focus on arrest, and the strict enforcement of the law. There is little consideration of prosecutorial discretion, limited interest about the causes of crime, and a general assumption that police will know what is best for the community. Community policing culture shows a tendency for openness, innovation, community interest, to serve and, protect, and free spirit. However if you combined the two together along with military styles it has been more successful than ever before. (Skolnick, 1966) & (R.Riener, 1994)

Needless to say community policing also relies on the community to which the officer works in. A cooperative community arrangement when working effectively reduces not just the number of incidence of crime but also the fear of crime.

It has been frequently said that the terrorist attack of September 11th 2001 also known to most as 911 has not only changed the world for ever. It has also changed the policing community and the style to which law enforcement uses. Using all three styles of traditional, community and militant in every effort to crack down on terrorism. Prior to September 11th attacks on the U.S. it was said that local police had basic involvement with a terrorist act. So basic that it was just a need to have them first on the scene. To take down information such as witness info, place time, detail of the encounter. After the basics it then became the issue of homeland security to resolve and investigate further. Very Little credit was given to the (little Guys) per (Murray, 2004)

But after several years of research and studies it has been proven that the local law enforcement agencies have the upper hand on fighting terrorism. If we allow them to not only do the job but complete the job we might be more successful at solving the terrorist crimes as well as preventing them prior to them taken place. Because of local agencies investigating acts of terror and having a more direct relationship with the community they rely on police to protect and serve. Although when it comes to Community crime they maybe more reluctant to help or snitch as they would say. However (Murray, p. 138) openly shows that when it comes down to attacks against our country the public will come forward in an effort to become one. To assure that our country stays the home of the free and the land of the brave!

Homeland security has relied on the media, public and law enforcement to provide them with evidence on terrorist attacks. However there is a time concern. Time is of the essence and is the most important in solving the crime as well as effective evidence being submitted to the government for prosecution. Homeland security preserves our rights as U.S. citizens. This is the governmental department working to prevent terrorism, protecting immigration laws, international drug trafficking enforcement, and border security. Using tactics like preparedness, response, and recovery. Also focusing on cyber security due to the high rate of internet crimes committed internationally. The biggest reason for homeland security taken over a terrorist act in the past is because of the act impacting a country, leader and or being of immigration decent. Because of this it puts local law enforcement agencies out of the loop. There are jurisdiction laws that still need to be followed. However since 911, Immigration & custom enforcement aka (ICE) has filed for what is known as a (MOA) Memorandum of agreement passed by congress in 2003. This allows federal, state & local agencies to work closely with ICE in enforcing immigration laws within their jurisdiction. (www.ICE.gov/287g, 2011) The MOA was passed with the help of President Bush and other political parties.

According to (Murray, 2004) book on policing and page 348, since 911, attacks on political leaders and other government officials has prompted more local agencies to jump on board. Local agencies



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