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To Observe the Properties of Certain Metals and Minerals by Testing Each Material Using Chosen Experiments

Essay by   •  June 21, 2011  •  Lab Report  •  2,013 Words (9 Pages)  •  2,038 Views

Essay Preview: To Observe the Properties of Certain Metals and Minerals by Testing Each Material Using Chosen Experiments

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Metals and Minerals

Aim: To observe the properties of certain metals and minerals by testing each material using chosen experiments.

Hypothesis: If the experiments are performed correctly and variables are controlled, then the differences between the metals and minerals should be easily shown.

Background Theory: Not all minerals and not all metals will react the same as one another. The physical properties of ionic materials are :- that most are hard, all have high boiling and melting points; poor conductors of heat; they will conduct electricity when molten or in a solution and they are not malleable or ductile.

The physical properties of metal are :- that when they are not corroded their surface is shiny; their density is mostly higher than non metals; they normally have high boiling points and melting points; they are good conductors of heat and electricity and they are relatively strong, ductile and malleable.

Heat is transferred from one molecule to another through the process of conduction. As one molecule is heated it begins to move and shake rapidly. As this happens, it passes its heat energy to other molecules around it. Through this process, all the molecules of an object pass heat from one to another, until they are all hot.

Electrical conductivity is a measure of how easily a material can conduct an electrical current. A material that does not conduct electricity at all, are called insulators. A multimeter can be used to test this and does so by sending an electrical current through whatever is being tested and then gives a reading of how reactive the substance is.

Density is the physical property of matter; the formal definition is density is mass per unit volume. It is expressed in grams per ml.

The formula is: density= mass/volume= g/ml.

Materials:

For Test A (Reaction with hydrochloric acid) the materials needed are:

8 Test tubes

Hydrochloric Acid (2M)

2 Test tube racks

Dropping pipette

Balance

Small sample of: Calcium carbonate, copper carbonate hydroxide, sodium chloride, iron III oxide

Small piece of: iron, lead, aluminum and copper

For Test B (Density) the materials needed are:

Eureka can

Balance

Small beaker

Tongs

Measuring cylinder

1 Solid piece of: calcite, malachite, halite, hematite

1 Solid piece of - iron, copper, aluminum, lead

For Test C (Heat conduction) the materials needed are:

Hot plate

2 Small beakers

2 Stopwatches

Candle wax

Matches

Tongs

Heat mat

1 Solid piece of - calcite, malachite, halite, hematite

1 Solid piece of - iron, copper, aluminum, lead

For Test D (Electrical conduction) the materials needed are:

Multimeter

1 Solid piece of - calcite, malachite, halite, hematite

1 Solid piece of - iron, copper, aluminum, lead

Method:

Test A (Reaction with hydrochloric acid):

1) 8 test tubes were lined up in the test tube rack and then labeled with each metal and mineral.

2) Each mineral and metal sample was added to an individual test tube, and 1.5mL of hydrochloric acid was added.

3) The reactions were observed and recorded.

Test B (Density):

1) A measuring cylinder was weighed and the weight recorded.

2) The Eureka can was filled to the brim and the excess water allowed to run out. The water was left to completely settle.

3) The measuring cylinder was placed under the spout of the Eureka can, and a sample - metal or mineral, dropped in.

4) After all water had stopped dripping from the spout, the cylinder was weighed again with the water. The amount taken away from the weight of the cylinder. This was recorded.

5) This step was repeated with each mineral and metal and all results were recorded.

Test C (Heat conduction):

1) Candle wax was melted onto each metal and mineral.

2) 20ml of water was added to each beaker then placed on the hotplate to boil.

3) Once the water in both beakers was boiling, a single sample was added to each one with the wax kept out of the water, the use of the tongs helped this to be achieved. The stopwatches were started the moment the substances were in the water.

4) When the wax began to melt the stopwatches were stopped and the times recorded.

5) This process was repeated with each of the other metals and minerals and all results recorded.

Test D (Electrical conduction):

1) The multimeter was set to 200. The first sample was placed on the table.

2) Each of the probes was placed on either side of the sample, and the reading was recorded

3) This

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