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American History Study Guide

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2nd period

13. The Pilgrims began the Plymouth Colony.

14. Because the Pilgrims landed outside the limits of the Virginia Company, their charter did not apply. For the sake of order the Pilgrims created the Mayflower Compact.

15. The Mayflower Compact helped established the idea of self-government and majority rule.

16. The Native Americans taught the Pilgrims how to survive in the New World after their starving period.

17. The Puritans began the Massachusetts Bay Colony.

18. The New England Way is a term used by the Puritans to describe both their beliefs and their society, which emphasized duty, godliness, hard work and honesty.

19. Roger Williams began the colony of Rhode Island, because it guaranteed religious freedom and the separation of church and state.

20. The Native Americans and Europeans differ in their views of land ownership in their own way. To Europeans, land could be owned by individuals. To Native Americans, land belonged to everyone.

21. The outcome of King Philip's War was that many were killed, while others were sold into slavery in the West Indies. Those who remained lost their land and were forced to become laborers.

22. More than 100 people were arrested and tried in the Salem Witchcraft Trials. Of those, 20 were found guilty and put to death.

23. The experience in Salem showed about a society can create scapegoats for its problems.

Chapter 3, Section 3, pg 100

24. Terminology:

 Peter Stuyvesant~ the governor of New Netherland

 Patroon~ a person who brought 50 settlers to New Netherland

 Duke of York~ the owner of colony of New York

 Proprietary Colony~ A colony run by a proprietor, or owner.

 William Penn~ The founder Pennsylvania

 Quaker~ a religious group who was persecuted for beliefs

 Royal Colony~ a colony ruled by a governor appointed by the king

 James Oglethorpe~ The founder of Georgia

24. The Netherlands became New York when the duke's ship appeared off New Amsterdam, the colony surrendered. And New Netherland became the proprietary colony of New York.

25. James Oglethorpe found Georgia because it was a refuge for debtors.

26. The English government intended to use the colony as a military outpost against Spanish Florida to the South and French Louisiana to the west.

Chapter 4, Section 1, pg 108

27. Terminology:

 Backcountry~ Region running along the Appalachian Mountains through the far western part of the other regions.

 Subsistence Farming~ producing just enough food for family use and sometimes a little extra trade in town.

 Triangular Trade~ Name given to a trading route with three stops

 Navigation Acts~ Laws passed by the English government to make sure that it made money form its colonies' trade

 Smuggling~ importing or exporting goods illegally

28. Several factors made each colonial region distinct. Some of the most important were each region's climate, resources and people.

29. In response to their rocky soil, the New England colonies practiced subsistence farming.

30. The three stops along the Triangular Trade Route were New England, Africa, and the West Indies.

New England to Africa Rum, iron

Africa to West Indies Middle Passage: Slaves, gold

West Indies to New England Sugar, molasses

31. The four major provisions to the Navigation Acts are the following:

1. All shipping had to be done in English ships or ships made in English colonies.

2. Products such as tobacco, wood, and sugar could be sold only to England or its colonies.

3. European imports to the colonies had to pass through English ports.

4. English officials were to tax to any colonial goods not shipped to England.

32. There are many different reasons what cause the decline of Puritan religion in New England "Puritan Society". (Here are three.) One reason was the drive for economic success competed with the Puritan ideas. Another reason was the increasing competition from other religious groups. Last, the political changes also weakened the community.

Chapter 4 Section 2 pg. 114:

33. Terminology:

 Cash Crop~ Crop raised to be sold for money

 Gristmill~ A mill where grain was ground into flour

 Diversity~ Variety

 Artisan~ Craftsperson

 Conestoga Wagon~ A wagon with wide wheels, curved bed, and canvas cover

34. The resources available in the middle colonies were cattle, fish, furs, iron, pigs, sheep, timber, and wheat.

35. The enormous trade caused the cities to prosper in the Middle Colonies.

36. The many different immigrant groups that arrived in the port cities of the middle colonies made it a diverse region.

37. The works of African Americans in the Middle colonies were different from those in New England because of the following: About 7 percent of the Middle Colonies population was enslaved but as in New England, many people of African descent live and worked in cities.

Chapter 4 Section 3 pg. 119:

38. Terminology:

 Indigo~ Plants that yields a rich blue dye.

 Eliza

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