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Behavior Across a Life Span

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Our firm has been hired to conduct research to develop a series of commercials that will target family members at different stages of their lives. Utilizing Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is the basis of this research. Our firm within this research will begin by describing each stage of his theory, which will include a description and analysis of a certain fictional character to compare at each stage of life. Our position is not to create the commercials but provide research for the theme park creators on how to market their service to the general public with reliable research to base their park. Our character that will be used for this report is the Simpson's. All the characters in this TV show have all the characteristics that can fit into Erickson's psychosocial theory, as will be shown in this report.

Michael Garcia Part

There are eight steps to the Erikson's theory. In order to understand the eight steps let one explain the reason behind the theory. Erik Erikson had the belief that the childhood stages had many effects on our personality today. Erik followed most of the concept of the Freud's theory but thought isn't only based on sexual orientation. Instead, Erik believed that personality can be developed from life experiences. If a person was to be physically abused as a child, it can develop that child to have multiple personality disorders. The abuse will determine the child's interactions and trust among other things. Such tragic events can affect how a person will interact or react in a given situation. Davis and Clifton wrote, (1995), Erikson believed that childhood is very important in personality development. He accepted many of Freud's theories. Including the id, ego, and superego, and Freud's theory of infantile sexuality. Erikson rejected Freud's attempt to describe personality solely based on sexuality, and, unlike Freud, felt that personality continued to develop beyond five years of age. The early years of a child's life are important but as the child develops into a man, he can also change his personality due to life events. When children both male and female have no fathers if affects their lively hood. According to Dad's world (2012), daughters of single parents without a Father involved are 53% more likely to marry as teenagers, 711% more likely to have children as teenagers, 164% more likely to have a pre-marital birth and 92% more likely to get divorced themselves." This shows that the impact of events (No Father), can lead to a turn of events that impact that child's personality and life. There are eight steps within Erikson's theory the first four are Basic Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, and Industry vs. Inferiority.

Basic Trust vs. Mistrust

Developing trust is the beginning point to the personality. Trust is usually earned rather than given. Yet it depends on how the person was raised to believe or interpreted. This theory begins within the child's first year of their lives. The parents will play a big part in this development stage. If the parents neglect the baby, ignores, and mistreats the baby, then the baby might grow up trust issues and become anti-social. If the parent gives the child, a sense of familiarity, attention, and does not mistreat the child, then the child can have a better understanding of life. According to Boeree (2006), "If the proper balance is achieved, the child will develop the virtue hope, the strong belief that, even when things are not going well, they will work out well in the end." A perfect balance meaning that the parent will be there for his or her child but not over protective or give the child too much attention. This will cause the child to be needy or not aware of the potential dangers. Being over protective can also harm the child's development with trust.

Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

This stage is developed from the ages of eighteen months to about four years of age. The purpose of this stage is to raise the autonomy and lower the chance of shame and doubt. This stage is to help the child develop independence and self-control. To achieve this, the parent must let the child explore but with supervision. This will help the child get used to his or her environment and learn self-control. This will also show them how to become independent. If the child is yelled at or hit for exploring or touching something that he or she is not supposed to, then the child can develop shame and doubt. Keep in mind that it's only a child and instead of hitting and yelling you should talk firmly to the child. This will help them understand their limits. According to Boeree (2006), On the other hand, it is rather easy for the child to develop shame and doubt. If the parents come down hard on any attempt to explore and be independent, the child will soon give up with the assumption that cannot and should not act on their own." Now Erikson also believed that a little shame and doubt are good for the child. This will help them think about a situation rather than just acting on it.

Initiative vs. Guilt

In this step, the parent will encourage his or her child to take initiative. This means the parent will encourage his or her child to try his or her own ideas and dig into his or her imagination. According to Boeree (2006), initiative means a positive response to the world's challenges, taking on responsibilities, learning new skills, feeling purposeful. Parents can encourage initiative by encouraging trying out their ideas." This is the perfect time to implement moral judgment to implement the idea of guilt. Now of course you don't want your child to feel guilty for everything, but at the same time you want him or her to develop his or her moral judgment. If a child was to smash an iPod with a hammer to see what it does, then this is a perfect time to let him or her know what he or she did wrong and to acknowledge how he or she might have been thinking. So if the child was to do it again he or she will have a sense of guilt. The child will have guilt evolved from the action he or she did resulting in the consequence. On the other hand, if a parent implements too much initiative, then he or she can become ruthlessness. If the parent is hard on the child who is ruthlessness, then it can cause the child to be inhibited. According to Boeree (2006), "The inhibited person will not try things because "nothing ventured; nothing lost" and nothing to feel guilty about." A child



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