OtherPapers.com - Other Term Papers and Free Essays

Effects of Smoking - Question & Answers

Essay by   •  June 7, 2011  •  Essay  •  812 Words (4 Pages)  •  4,074 Views

Essay Preview: Effects of Smoking - Question & Answers

Report this essay
Page 1 of 4

1. What main components in cigarettes affect the respiratory system?

The human respiratory system is made up of the nasal passage, pharynx (throat), trachea (windpipe), Bronchi and the alveoli which reside in the lungs. Cigarette smoke affects the respiratory system through two means, the smoke and the tar. The hot smoke can irritate the lining of the nasal passage and the tracheal passage. The presence of 4000 chemicals leads to clogging the cilia along the nasal and throat passage causing the cilia to lose its fluidity. When the cilia slow down the mucus is not passed along and gets clogged up in the trachea. Smokers cough is produced due to the excessive mucus. Moreover the tar sticks to the tender surface of the alveoli reducing its surface contact with blood vessels. Continued accumulation of tar leads to the onset of cancer in the lungs, preceded by problems like chronic bronchitis or emphysema. When cigarette smoke is inhaled, the chemicals contained in it are quickly absorbed by the lungs and released into the bloodstream. From the blood, these chemicals pass into the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, muscle, and fat tissue. In pregnant women, cigarette smoke crosses the placenta and may affect development of the fetus.

2. Explain how smoking might lead to increased levels of carbon dioxide in the blood.

Body tissues metabolize sugar to produce energy, releasing carbon dioxide as a byproduct. Carbon dioxide enters the bloodstream and travels to the lungs. With each exhalation, the lungs rid the body of excess carbon dioxide. The lungs serve as the primary regulator of the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood. Elevated levels of blood carbon dioxide, or hypercapnia, usually indicate a problem with the lungs or brain control of the respiratory rate. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of hypercapnia. Emphysema is a common subtype of COPD. This disease makes it difficult to breathe, reducing the amount of oxygen that reaches the bloodstream and thus increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide. Cigarette smoking is the primary cause of COPD. Other lung irritants, including pollution and other airborne particles, are other common causes of COPD. These risk factors should be avoided to reduce the likelihood of hypercapnia. Quitting smoking is the best way to reduce the risk of COPD.

3. Can smoking affect other organs systems of the body? Give examples of explain your answer.

Smoking cigarettes can affect more than just the respiratory system. Nicotine restricts blood vessels and sugar (cheap brands) that causes tooth decay. All together, the substances within tobacco erode the mouth over time as an individual regularly smokes. This erosion translates into a variety of conditions. Smoking causes bad breath, teeth stains,



Download as:   txt (5.1 Kb)   pdf (78.5 Kb)   docx (10.7 Kb)  
Continue for 3 more pages »
Only available on OtherPapers.com