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Impacts of Professional Development on Teachers Integrating Technology in K-12

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Impacts of Professional Development on Teachers Integrating Technology in K-12

In the contemporary society, schools have invested a lot in better technologies for instance, software, computers, and hardware in order to have an access to these internet services (Foltos, 2002), however research indicates diverse results in the impacts of such technologies on the academic achievement (Roschelle et al., 2002). A normal concept apparent on technology use in the research in these classrooms is the impact of teacher professional development on the integration and use of technology in schools (Schmitt, 2004, Thompson, et al., 2004; Flowers, et al., 2002). The effectiveness of this facet is dependent on certain features for instance, the internet, software, and hardware; in addition these tools can only be effective depending on the teacher's aptitude to integrate them into instruction in a logical manner. Development of human resource has basic principles supporting the influence of career and individual development in the efficiency of performance management and organizational growth (Gilley, et al., 2002).

The research indicates that educators are at different phases of use or development when it pertains to technology, and these levels consist of levels like utilization, reorientation, familiarization, integration, innovation, survival, evolution, and mastery. A study conducted by Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT), provides suggestions in relation to the programs for professional development to guide teachers through the different stages of using technology. Ehman and Bonk (2002) as well postulates the necessity for systematic reflection on practice as a mode for building knowledge. For such development to happen, districts and schools must focus on constructing favorable conditions for continuous development in professionalism, integrating approaches into school improvement strategies, encouraging a culture of learning through telecommunications, respect for people with diverse opinion and supporting educators' development as action researchers (Hunter, 2001; Rodgers, 2003). Additionally, the instruction should comprise of teaching with technology rather than technology itself (Iren and Bell, 2002).

Annotated Bibliography

Ehman, L., & Bonk, C. J. (2002). A Model of Teacher Professional Development to Support Technology Integration. New Orleans, LA: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. (Eric Document Reproduction Service No. ED467093)

The article describes the results of a program for in-service teacher education sponsored by University of Indiana School of Education that was meant to enhance logical infusion of educational technology into the curricular of K-12 of educators across the rural schools in southern Indiana. The authors maintain the influence of ACOT study and the findings that influence development of teacher professional programs currently. The development principles of ACOT include: activities for staff development must be in classrooms to foster interaction, observation and practice; there should use of constructivist approach and modeling activities and offer hands-on instruction; reflection and conversation should be central facet of staff development; those participating should improvise lessons that fuse technology and implement it immediately into classrooms. This article provides an insight on the latent integration concepts and technology tools, providing a systematic strategy for evaluation, revision of practice and self-reflection. It also provides how face-to-face and electronic collaboration between training personnel and colleagues foster learning.

Flowers, N., Mertens, S. B., & Mulhall, P. F. (2002). Four Important Lessons About Teacher Professional Development. Retrieved June 13, 2005, fromhttp://www.nmsa.org/research/articles/res_articles_may2002c.htm

This inquiry identified the discrepancy between teacher opinion and administrative on expectations concerning what their career development should focus on. In this research by the CPRD (Center for Prevention Research and Development) at the Illinois University found that the highly ranked subjects that teachers desire consist of computer usage during instruction and approaches for teaching a wide range of aptitude levels. These tools foster learning within the learning environment and make certain that every teacher is comfortable with the learning tools incorporated. On the other hand, administrators understood that the classrooms requires but also identified wider issues as a need like peer coaching, data-based decision making, and teacher-led advisory. This study provides an insightful and substantive content for the research. It focuses of both teachers and administrators including learning and teaching process, and larger school advancement perspective respectively. In addition it is also necessary in determining the efficacy dialogue in designing various forms of professional development.

Foltos, L. (2002). Technology and Academic Achievement. Retrieved June 19, 2012, from http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/technology/foltos.htm

In this article, the author identifies the huge amount of invested on classroom technology yearly ($5 billion), and notes the little return on it. He also argues that there is inadequate evidence and research indicating how technology impact of academic research. Novel study is displayed showing positive outcomes on the usage of technology, however identifies the significance of professional development and teacher training as variables that alter efficient use of technology to enhance academic achievement. Technology is displayed in different forms with examples on how it has impacted on students yearly since its application. The author also points out inquiry-based learning and project-based instruction as approaches that are improved through technology use. This study provides substantial recommendations for schools and authorities to adopt novel mechanisms of professional development focusing on the role of technology in learning such as teachers' collaboration, sustenance of professional development and further research to improve this system.

Gilley, J., Eggland, S., & Gilley, A. (2002). Principles of Human Resource Development. New York: Basic Books.

The Book outlines primary human resource development's principles and particularly identifies the duties of professions in human resource development in helping employees in realizing their full potential. The Book identifies four major constituents of human resource development as career development, performance management, individual development, and organizational development. These elements when joined together play an integral part in



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