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Negative Reinforcement

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SSCI206 Unit 1 DB

Negative reinforcement: Is to take something negative away usually to enhance a response (Barker, Kreider, Peissig, Sokoloff, & Stansfield, n.d.). This can occur when the probability of specific behaviors are increased by eliminating something unpleasant after the behavior (Barker, Kreider, Peissig, Sokoloff, & Stansfield, n.d.). An example of negative reinforcement would be if a child is badgered by her parents to take a bath and brush her teeth every day. After a few weeks of this the child begins getting in the bath and brushing her teeth before her parent's begin to badger her. Her parents praise her and the child doesn't have to hear them badgering her; thus, everyone is happy. The result is that by eliminating the negative stimulus will be reinforcing and increase the probability that she will take a bath and brush her teeth each day.

Positive reinforcement: Is to add something usually to enhance a response (Barker, Kreider, Peissig, Sokoloff, & Stansfield, n.d.). This can occur when the probability of specific behaviors are increased after awarding s/he with something enjoyable after the behavior (Barker, Kreider, Peissig, Sokoloff, & Stansfield, n.d.). An example of positive reinforcement would be awarding her/him with a treat, increasing the probability of good behavior. Depending upon the individual(s), a positive reinforcement can come in the form of praise and/or reward; such as an ice cream for good grades.

Positive punishment: This occurs when the possibility of a specific behavior decreases due to reinforcing something unpleasant after the behavior occurs (Barker, Kreider, Peissig, Sokoloff, & Stansfield, n.d.). An example of positive punishment is when negative behavior of a co-worker decreases due to being appraised.

Negative punishment: This occurs when the probability of a specific behavior decreases due to eliminating something enjoyable after the behavior occurs (Barker, Kreider, Peissig, Sokoloff, & Stansfield, n.d.). An example of negative punishment is when the frequency of a child's bad grades decreases due to taking their cell phone away.

Unfortunately, praise and rewards are given for bad behavior without consciously knowing it (Board, 2011). When this occurs, this has a probability to inadvertently reinforce unwanted negative behavior. As an example, in the case of the sixth grade teacher, s/he may unknowingly prolong the behavior of the student, by proposing an award, which may or may not appeal to the student's interests; thus, resulting in a continuance of turning in late assignments.

Using negative reinforcements to discourage the student, a bad mark may persuade the student to try much harder at this/her assignments on time (Board, 2011). In any situation, especially one such as this, it is crucial to assess the situation as a whole. You must eliminate all possibilities

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