# Praxair Inc. Operation Research Hw

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CBE 180 PS #3

Yiran Wang

SID: 23538528

10. a.         [pic 1]

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According to the balance sheet of Praxair Inc. (PX), the following table summarizing book value, market value, the price to book ratio, and the stock market price at the end of both 2013 and 2014.

 Till December 31, 2014 Till December 31, 2013 Book Value(Shareholder’s Equity) \$5,623,000,000 \$6,609,000,000 Stock Market Price per Share(Adjusted close) \$127.20 \$125.15 Common stock authorized(From consolidated balance sheet) 289,261,608 shares 294,133,864 shares Market Value \$127.20*289,261,608 = \$36,794,076,540 \$125.15*294,133,864=\$36,810,853,080 Price To Book Ratio [pic 4] [pic 5]

b. We should not include treasury shares to determine the “market value”. Treasure share is stock bought back by the issuing company to reduce the amount of outstanding stock on the open market. Market value is the total value of common stocks that are issued and outstanding. Since Treasury share is not taken into consideration when calculating the earnings per share or dividends, it does not generate any money. Therefore, it should not be taken into part of “market value” to show the value of the company.

Comment:

The price to book value is a method for investors to find low-priced stocks that the market has neglected. If the value is less than one, it is either the market believes the asset values are overstated, or the company is earning a very poor return on its assets. Since the price to book value for both 2013 and 2014 and positive and relatively stable, it is possible that investors are willing to buy the stocks of the company, which shows the healthy condition of the business.

11. a.

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According to the balance sheet of Praxair Inc. (PX), the following table summarizing quick ratio, current ratio and working capital at the end of both 2013 and 2014.

 Till December 31, 2014 Till December 31, 2013 Cash and Cash Equivalent \$126,000,000 \$138,000,000 Account Receivable \$1,796,000,000 \$1,892,000,000 Current Liabilities \$2,490,000,000 \$2,664,000,000 Quick Ratio [pic 9] [pic 10] Current Assets \$2,839,000,000 \$2,916,000,000 Current Ratio [pic 11] [pic 12] Working Capital \$2,839,000,000-\$2,490,000,000 = \$349,000,000 \$2,916,000,000-\$2,664,000,000 = \$252,000,000

Comment:

Quick ratio measures the dollar amount of liquid assets available for each dollar of current liabilities. The quick ratio for the company is positive and increases in 2014 so that the company has a good liquidity position. The positive current ratio also proves the company is capable of paying its obligations, because it has large proportion of asset value relative to the value of its liabilities. The working capitals of PX in 2013 and 2014 are high, which shows that the company has sufficient money to prepare for any fluctuations in the market.

b.

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According to the balance sheet of Praxair Inc. (PX), the following table summarizing the long-term debt-to-equity-ratio and total debt-to-equity-ratio at the end of both 2013 and 2014.

 Till December 31, 2014 Till December 31, 2013 Long-term Debt \$8,669,000,000 \$8,026,000,000 Shareholders’ Equity \$5,623,000,000 \$6,609,000,000 long-term debt-to-equity-ratio [pic 15] [pic 16] Total Liabilities \$14,003,000,000 \$13,339,000,000 total debt-to-equity-ratio [pic 17] [pic 18]

Comment:

All the debt to equity ratios are positive for both years, which measure the company’s debt relative to the value of its stock. Although the ratio is positive, the values are not too high. We can know that the company tries to finance its growth with debt, but it is not aggressive and won’t leads the company to high levels of risk.

c.

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According to the balance sheet of Praxair Inc. (PX), the following table summarizing gross margin and the markup on cost at the end of both 2013 and 2014.

 Till December 31, 2014 Till December 31, 2013 Gross Profit \$5,311,000,000 \$5,181,000,000 Sales \$12,273,000,000 \$11,925,000,000 Gross Margin [pic 21] [pic 22] COGS \$6,962,000,000 \$6,744,000,000 Markup on Cost [pic 23] [pic 24]

Comment:

The gross margin represents the percent of total sales revenue that the company retains after incurring the direct costs associated with producing goods and services. The gross margin are relatively high for both years, and it means the company retains a large portion on each dollar of sales to service its other costs. The markup on costs are high for both years. The company is capable of increasing its profits or lower their costs, which shows the company is functioning well.

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