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Female Leadership

Essay by   •  June 16, 2011  •  Essay  •  3,114 Words (13 Pages)  •  1,660 Views

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Introduction........................................................................................................ 4 History and concepts of glass ceiling.................................................................... Review of literature............................................................................................. The glass ceiling is broken................................................................................... Analysis and interpretations................................................................................. 4 4 6 7

Facts of women in the organisations (ILO, 2008)................................................... 7 View points......................................................................................................... 8

Question 2.......................................................................................................... 9 Introduction........................................................................................................ 9 Literature review of advantages and disadvantages regarding female leader........... Benefits of women being Board of Director........................................................... Drawbacks of female leaderships......................................................................... Conclusion.......................................................................................................... References......................................................................................................... 9 10 11 11 12

Bibliography........................................................................................................ 13

1

Mohammed Dawood

MBA Wales

WAMB4001

Assignment Briefing A „glass ceiling exist‟ for women in many organisations. In response to this, certain countries (e.g., France) are legislating to ensure a minimum % of female participation on the board of directors in organisations. 1. Critically explore the literature pertaining to this supposed „glass ceiling‟. 2. Critically discuss the benefits and/ or drawbacks associated with female participation on an organisation‟s board of directors. (2000 Words)

2

Mohammed Dawood

MBA Wales

WAMB4001

1. Critically explore the literature pertaining to this supposed 'glass ceiling'.

Introduction „Glass ceiling‟ is a phrase which generally refers to circumstance where the most eligible person are being stopped at a junior level in any organisations because of some form of elements, mainly gender discrimination within the hierarchy of an organisation. In simple word glass ceiling is gender discrimination that restrict woman to be a superior in the organisation. This type of behaviour makes woman a weaker not only mentally but also physically as well. Although, there is a boom in education sector, the empowerment and democracy is being practiced in the organisations, still have negative and conservative feelings against women employees in the society. History and concepts of glass ceiling Men have always dominated the top positions in any field of life in this world and it is acceptable by the society. Men always are favouritism in the society from many years (Friedan, 1982). The term „glass ceiling‟ first time introduced to the world by Carol Hymowitz and Timothy Schellhardt and it published in Wall Street Journal in 1986 after getting the fact of women participating in top management position organisations. Glass ceiling exists in many countries all over the world as it is indicated by a various researches. It has been a customary and it is practiced by stereotype society since long time. This sort of feeling affects the performance of women employees. Review of Literature A large number of women are taking participation in the organisations for work and the percentage has increased over the last 30 years. There are various forms of discriminations faced by the women in the organisation such as gender wage gap, job sequestration, sexual harassment, evaluation of poor performance and lack of promotion opportunities etc. Most of people keep in mind that women can‟t take the great decision and they do not have higher decision making abilities compare to

3

Mohammed Dawood

MBA Wales

WAMB4001

men. Moreover, women face the challenges of role juggling and role conflict between jobs and home responsibility. Glass ceiling is an invisible but existent and effective barriers that comes in the way of women and stop them from reaching top positions in the management hierarchy within the organisation (Morrison & Glinow, 1990). There are few numbers of women in higher level in an organisation forced to scholars and researchers to find out whether glass ceiling barriers like gender stereotype, gender discrimination, harassment, wage gap and polices are really plays a vital role in the organisation and how it is effecting the performance of women staff in the organisations (Jeavons & Sevastos, 2002). This has been accepted by many scholars and investigators that glass ceiling exist in different organisations. Tokunaga & Graham (1997) investigated in a sales department at one the top Fortune 500 companies and stated that female employees are not provided enough training and sale skills compare to the male staff, so it is an evidence for existence of glass ceiling against women. This form of discrimination also effects and prevents women to progress in the organisations. According to Schein (2007), in managerial position‟s gender stereotyping is being continued over the last 30 years as major barrier to women‟s progress in the organisations all over the world. Bell, McLaughlin & Sequeira (2002) discussed the relationship between harassment, discrimination and glass ceiling (referred as one of the form of sex discrimination) and they concluded that all three have same background, steps to reduce one them will likely affects others. They also recommended the measures structured to boost the numbers of women employees in higher level will decrease the sexual harassment. Gender related elements also effects in the selection criteria for top positions in the organisations.

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