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Havard Referencing System

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© Learning Services, Edge Hill University, 2010

Harvard Referencing

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3

Contents Page

Section 1: General Questions

Harvard Referencing 5

Citing 5

Bibliography 5-6

Reference list 6

Bibliographic details 6

More than one book by the same author in the bibliography 7

More than one report from the same author, written in one year 7

Appendix 7

Plagiarism 7

Avoiding plagiarism 7-8

Quoting 8

Referencing a long quote 9

Quoting parts from a long paragraph 9-10

Paraphrasing 10

Ibid 10

Op.cit. 10

Et al. 11

Edition 11

Author who cites another author (secondary citation) 11

Summarising several authors 12

Bibliographic management tools 12

Section 2: Hard copy texts: books, journals, reports, etc.

Conventions for titles 13-14

Book with one author 14

Book with two authors 14

Book with three or more authors 14-15

Chapter in an edited book 15

Fictitious author 15

Book review 16

Translated book 16

Foreign language book 16

Diary or book of letters 16

Dictionary 17

Encyclopaedia 17

Journal Article 17

Art image from a book 18

Newspaper article 18

Report 18

Government report 18

Act of Parliament 18

Exhibition catalogue 19

Leaflet 19

Pamphlet 19

PhD or dissertation 20

Conference paper 20

Interview (face-to-face) 20

Letter 20

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Section 3: Electronic Resources Page

Website 21

E-book 22

Book review (online) 22

Journal (online) 22

Newspaper (online) 22

Dictionary (online) 23

Encyclopaedia (online) 23

Radio programme 24

Radio programme (online) 24

Podcast 24

Television programme 25

Television programme (online) 26

Teachers TV 26

Film (television or cinema) 27

DVD 27

Video 27

CD 27

Government report (online) 27

Act of Parliament (online) 28

Telephone interview 28

Email 28

Facebook 29

Blog 30

You Tube 30

MySpace 30

Slideshare 31

Online image gallery 31

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Section 1: General Questions

Please note - you will find more detailed explanations of what is being referenced, for

example author, publisher and so on, in the FAQs on Learning Services' web pages.

What is Harvard referencing?

Referencing is the acknowledgment of all the sources you have cited in your assignments,

whether you have quoted directly or paraphrased. The Harvard system uses the

author - date method; the references in the assignment text are given in brackets and the

list of sources is given in a bibliography (or reference list), attached to the assignment.

Most of the examples we have given are direct quotes. There is an example of

paraphrasing on page 9.

Referencing enables you to:

* show you have researched your topic, for example, articles, books, reference

works

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