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Nutrition 101 Study Guide

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1. Classes of nutrients?

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, water.

2. Substance present in fruits and vegetables that offers many health benefits?


3. What are essential nutrients?

A substance that, when left out of a diet, leads to signs of poor health. The body either can't produce this nutrient or can't produce enough of it to meet its needs. If added back into diet (before permanent damage occurs) normal health is restored.

4. What nutrient class does fiber belong to?


5. Characteristics of vitamins?

Compound needed in small amounts in the diet to help regulate and support chemical reactions and processes in the body, fat soluble (A,D,E,K) or water soluble (B,C), yield no energy/calories.

6. How many Kcals per gram do carbohydrates, proteins, and fats have?

Carbs: 4, Proteins: 4, Lipids/Fats: 9

7. What is a calorie?

Measurement of energy, "amount of heat energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1g or water by 1 degree Celsius" A kilocalorie is the amount of heat energy needed to raise the temperature of 1000g (1L) of water by 1 degree Celsius.

8. What is the freshman 15?

Refers to the weight gained by college students in their first year of study. Caused by stressful situations, university environment, peer pressure, alcohol, lack of exercise.

9. What are the influences that encourage the finding and eating of food?

Hunger (physical, biological drive) vs: Appetite (psychological drive)

10. What are principles to follow to eat a health promoting diet?

Monitor calorie/energy intake, eat salt in moderation, alcohol in moderation (if at all), fat in moderation, adequate fluids, eat 5 small meals/day, use supplements wisely, meal time should be social time, increase fruits & vegetables, increase whole grain intake, lower fat, sodium and saturated fat intake.

11. What is nutrient density?

Comparison of vitamin and minerals with the number of Kcals.

12. What does RDA stand for?

Recommended dietary allowance - recommended intakes of nutrients that meet needs of almost all healthy people of similar age/gender.

13. What is balanced nutrition, overnutrition, and undernutrition?

Balanced nutrition: intake meets body's needs, body may have small surplus saved for later.

Overnutrition: intake exceeds body's needs, short term = few symptoms, long term = serious conditions (obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, abuse of supplements)

Undernutrition: intake is below body's needs, surpluses are depleted, health declines, metabolic processes slow or stop, subclinical deficiency (starvation mode but no outward signs) → clinical (visible) symptoms.

14. What is MyPyramid?

USDA's (US Department of Agriculture) update on the American food pyramid. Translates science into practical terms, helps people meet nutritional needs, uses activity, moderation, personalization, proportionality, variety, and gradual improvement.

15. What are the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?

A series of general goals for nutrient intakes and diet composition set by the USDA and the US Department of Health and Human Services. Created to aid diet planning and decrease poor dietary habits and disease patterns.

16. What is biochemical evaluation, diet history, and clinical examination/nutritional assessment?

Biochemical: laboratory tests, (ex: blood, urine, enzyme concentrations)

Diet History/Assessment: dietary journal of usual intake during meals over the course of many days.

Clinical Examination: physical physician



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